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text 4
  many people talked of the 288,000 new jobs the labor department reported for june, along with the drop in the unemployment rate to 6.1 percent, as good news. and they were right. for now it appears the economy is creating jobs at a decent pace. we still have a long way to go to get back to full employment, but at least we are now finally moving forward at a faster pace.
  however, there is another important part of the jobs picture that was largely overlooked. there was a big jump in the number of people who repot voluntarily working part-time. this figure is now 830,000(4.4 percent)above its year ago level.
  before explaining the connection to the obamacare, it is worth making an important distinction. many people who work part-time jobs actually want full-time jobs. they take part-time work because this is all they can get. an increase in involuntary part-time work is evidence of weakness in the labor market and it means that many people will be having a very hard time making ends meet.
  there was an increase in involuntary part-time in june, but the general direction has been down. involuntary part-time employment is still far higher than before the recession, but it is down by 640,000(7.9percent)from is year ago level.
  we know the difference between voluntary and involuntary part-time employment because people tell us. the survey used by the labor department asks people is they worked less than 35 hours in the reference week. if the answer is yes, they are classified as worked less than 35hours in that week because they wanted to work less than full time or because they had no choice .they are only classified as voluntary part-time workers if they tell the survey taker they chose to work less than 35 hours a week.
  the issue of voluntary part-time relates to obamacare because one of the main purposes was to allow people to get insurance outside of employment. for many people , especially those with serious health conditions or family members with serious health conditions ,before obamacare the only way to get insurance was through a job that provided health insurance.
  however, obamacare has allowed more than 12 million people to either get insurance through medicaid or the exchanges. these are people who may previously have felt the need to get a full-time job that provided insurance in order to cover themselves and their families. with obamacare there is no longer a between employment and insurance.

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text 3
  even in traditional offices, the lingua franca of corporate america has gotten much more emotional and much more right-brained than it was 20 years ago, said harvard business school professor nancy koehn. she started spinning off examples. if you and i parachuted back to fortune 500 companies in 1990, we would see much less frequent use of terms like journey, mission, passion. there were goals, there were strategies, there were ives, but we didnrsquo;t talk about energy; we didnrsquo;t talk about passion.
  koehn pointed out that this new era of corporate vocabulary is very team-orientedmdash;and not by coincidence. letrsquo;s not forget sportsmdash;in male-dominated corporate america, itrsquo;s still a big deal. itrsquo;s not explicitly conscious; itrsquo;s the idea that irsquo;m a coach, and yoursquo;re my team, and wersquo;re in this together. there are lots and lots of ceos in very different companies, but most think of themselves as coaches and this is their team and they want to win.
  these terms are also intended to infuse work with meaningmdash;and, as khurana points out, increase allegiance to the firm. you have the importation of terminology that historically used to be associated with non-profit organizations and religious organizations: terms like vision, values, passion, and purpose, said khurana.
  this new focus on personal fulfillment can help keep employees motivated amid increasingly loud debates over work-life balance. the mommy wars of the 1990s are still going on today, prompting arguments about why women still canrsquo;t have it all and books like sheryl sandbergrsquo;s lean in, whose has become a buzzword in its own right. terms like unplug, offline, life-hack, bandwidth, and capacity are all about setting boundaries between the office and the home. but if your work is your passion, yoursquo;ll be more likely to devote yourself to it, even if that means going home for dinner and then working long after the kids are in bed.
  but this seems to be the irony of office speak: everyone makes fun of it, but managers love it, companies depend on it, and regular people willingly absorb it. as nunberg said, you can get people to think itrsquo;s nonsense at the same time that you buy into it. in a workplace thatrsquo;s fundamentally indifferent to your life and its meaning, office speak can help you figure out how you relate to your workmdash;and how your work defines who you are.

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text 2
  for years, studies have found that first-generation college students- those who do not have a parent with a college degree- lag other students on a range of education achievement factors. their grades are lower and their dropout rates are higher. but since such students are most likely to advance economically if they succeed in higher education, colleges and universities have pushed for decades to recruit more of them. this has created a paradox in that recruiting first- generation students, but then watching many of them fail, means that higher education has continued to reproduce and widen, rather than close ab achievement gap d on social class, according to the depressing beginning of a paper forthcoming in the journal psychological science.
  but the article is actually quite optimistic, as it outlines a potential solution to this problem, suggesting that an approach (which involves a one-hour, next-to-no-cost program) can close 63 percent of the achievement gap (measured by such factors as grades) between first-generation and other students.
  the authors of the paper are from different universities, and their findings are d on a study involving 147 students ( who completed the project) at an unnamed private university. first generation was defined as not having a parent with a four-year college degree. most of the first-generation students(59.1 percent) were recipients of pell grants, a federal grant for undergraduates with financial need, while this was true only for 8.6 percent of the students wit at least one parent with a four-year degree.
  their thesis- that a relatively modest intervention could have a big impact- was d on the view that first-generation students may be most lacking not in potential but in practical knowledge about how to deal with the issues that face most college students. they cite past research by several authors to show that this is the gap that must be narrowed to close the achievement gap.
  many first- generation students struggle to navigate the middle-class culture of higher education, learn the lsquo;rules of the game,rsquo; and take advantage of college resources, they write. and this becomes more of a problem when collages donrsquo;t talk about the class advantage and disadvantages of different groups of students. because us colleges and universities seldom acknowledge how social class can affect students rsquo;educational experience, many first-generation students lack sight about why they are struggling and do not understand how studentsrsquo; like them can improve.

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section iii translation
  directions:
  read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into chinese. your translation should be written clearly on answer sheet. (10 points)
  within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigrationmdash;one of the great folk wanderings of historymdash;swept from europe to america. 46) this movement, driven by powerful and perse motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.
  47) the united states is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of european peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. of necessity, colonial america was a projection of europe. across the atlantic came successive groups of englishmen, frenchmen, germans, scots, irishmen, dutchmen, swedes, and many others who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world.
  48) but, the force of geographic conditions peculiar to america, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. these changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. but the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled european society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly american.
  49) the first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the united states crossed the atlantic more than a hundred years after the 15th- and 16th-century explorations of north america. in the meantime, thriving spanish colonies had been established in mexico, the west indies, and south america. these travelers to north america came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. during their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on barely enough food allotted to them. many of the ship were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. sometimes storms blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought unbearably long delay.
  to the anxious travelers the sight of the american shore brought almost inexpressible relief. said one recorder of events, the air at twelve leaguesrsquo; distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden. the colonistsrsquo; first glimpse of the new land was a sight of dense woods. 50) the virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a veritable real treasure-house which extended from maine all the way down to georgia. here was abundant fuel and lumber. here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores.

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text 4
  two years ago, rupert murdochrsquo;s daughter ,elisabeth ,spoke of the unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our institutions integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance that the only sorting mechanism in society should be profit and the market .but itrsquo;s us ,human beings ,we the people who create the society we want ,not profit .
  driving her point home, she continued: itrsquo;s increasingly apparent that the absence of purpose, of a moral language within government, media or business could become one of the most dangerous foals for capitalism and freedom. this same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies such as news international ,shield thought ,making it more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread illegal telephone hacking .
  as the hacking trial concludes ndash; finding guilty ones-editor of the news of the world, andy coulson, for conspiring to hack phones ,and finding his predecessor, rebekah brooks, innocent of the same charge ndash;the winder issue of dearth of integrity still standstill, journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people .this is hacking on an industrial scale ,as was acknowledged by glenn mulcaire, the man hired by the news of the world in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. others await trial. this long story still unfolds.
  in many respects, the dearth of moral purpose s not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial took place .one of the astonishing revelations was how little rebekah brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, wow little she thought to ask and the fact that she never inquired wow the stories arrived. the core of her successful defence was that she knew nothing.
  in todayrsquo;s world, has become normal that wellmdash;paid executives should not be accountable for what happens in the organizations that they run perhaps we should not be so surprised. for a generation, the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. the words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, businessndash;friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. words degraded to the margin have been justice fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability.
  the purpose of editing the news of the world was not to promote reader understanding to be fair in what was written or to betray any common humanity. it was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and impact. ms brooks may or may not have had suspicions about how her journalists got their stories, but she asked no questions, gave no instructionsmdash;nor received traceable, recorded answers.

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text 3
  the journal science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, editor-in-chief marcia mcnutt announced today. the policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings.
  readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal, writes mcnutt in an editorial. working with the american statistical association, the journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of reviewing editors(sbore). manu will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journalrsquo;s internal editors, or by its existing board of reviewing editors or by outside peer reviewers. the sbore panel will then find external statisticians to review these manus.
  asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, mcnutt said: the creation of the lsquo;statistics boardrsquo; was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of sciencersquo;s overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish.
  giovanni parmigiani, a biostatistician at the harvard school of public health, a member of the sbore group. he says he expects the board to play primarily an advisory role. he agreed to join because he found the foresight behind the establishment of the sbore to be novel, unique and likely to have a lasting impact. this impact will not only be through the publications in science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after science.
  john ioannidis, a physician who studies research methodology, says that the policy is a most welcome step forward and long overdue. most journals are weak in statistical review, and this damages the quality of what they publish. i think that, for the majority of scientific papers nowadays, statistical review is more essential than expert review, he says. but he noted that biomedical journals such as annals of internal medicine, the journal of the american medical association and the lancet pay strong attention to statistical review.
  professional scientists are expected to know how to analyze data, but statistical errors are alarmingly common in published research, according to david vaux, a cell biologist. researchers should improve their standards, he wrote in 2012, but journals should also take a tougher line, engaging reviewers who are statistically literate and editors who can verify the process. vaux says that sciencersquo;s idea to pass some papers to statisticians has some merit, but a weakness is that it relies on the board of reviewing editors to identify lsquo;the papers that need scrutinyrsquo; in the first place.

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text 2
  just how much does the constitution protect your digital data the supreme court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.
  california has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling particularly one that upsets the old assumption that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. it is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.
  the court would be recklessly modest if it followed californiarsquo;s advice. enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justices can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.
  they should start by discarding californiarsquo;s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smart phone mdash; a vast storehouse of digital information mdash; is similar to, say, rifling through a suspectrsquo;s purse. the court has ruled that police donrsquo;t violate the fourth amendment when they sift through the wallet or pocketbook of an arrestee without a warrant. but exploring onersquo;s smart phone is more like entering his or her home. a smart phone may contain an arresteersquo;s reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. the development of cloud computing, meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.
  americans should take steps to protect their digital privacy. but keeping sensitive information on these devices is increasingly a requirement of normal life. citizens still have a right to expect private documents to remain private and protected by the constitutionrsquo;s prohibition on unreasonable searches.
  as so often is the case, stating that principle doesnrsquo;t ease the challenge of line-drawing. in many cases, it would not be overly onerous for authorities to obtain a warrant to search through phone contents. they could still invalidate fourth amendment protections when facing severe, urgent circumstances, and they could take reasonable measures to ensure that phone data are not erased or altered while a warrant is pending. the court, though, may want to allow room for police to cite situations where they are end to more freedom.
  but the justices should not swallow californiarsquo;s argument whole. new, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the constitutionrsquo;s protections. orin kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a virtual necessity of life in the 20th: the justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the fourth amendment applies to digital information now.

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section ii reading comprehension
  part a
  directions:
  read the following four texts. answer the questions below each text by choosing a, b, c or d. mark your answers on answer sheet. (40 points)
  text 1
  king juan carlos of spain once insisted kings donrsquo;t abdicate, they dare in their sleep. but embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. so, does the spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days does that mean the writing is on the wall for all european royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyle
  the spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. when public opinion is particularly polarised, as it was following the end of the franco regime, monarchs can rise above mere politics and embody a spirit of national unity.
  it is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchsrsquo; continuing popularity polarized. and also, the middle east excepted, europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting vatican city and andorra). but unlike their absolutist counterparts in the gulf and asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.
  even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very historymdash;and sometimes the way they behave today ndash; embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. at a time when thomas piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.
  the most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.
  while europersquo;s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the british royals who have most to fear from the spanish example.
  it is only the queen who has preserved the monarchyrsquo;s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. the danger will come with charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. he has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service ndash; as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. charles ought to know that as english history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchyrsquo;s worst enemies.

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