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Text 4

  When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned.
  Why is that To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to shove for attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure project, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged.
  Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes.
  The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need.
  There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%.
  Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new developments from revenues.
  But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015,is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large part of the coalition’s spending plans if returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to era of large-scale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate.

36. The author believes that the housing sector________

A.has attracted much attention
B.involves certain political factors
C.shoulders too much responsibility
D.has lost its real value in economy

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Text 2

  An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to research into what the call the “above average effect”, or “illusory superiority”, and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others—all obviously statistical impossibilities.
  We rose tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we’re hot stuff.
  Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original photogragh of themselves’ from a lineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is “an automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image- which must did- they genuinely believed it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. “I don’t think the findings that we having have are any evidence of personal delusion”, says Epley. “It’s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves’. If you are depressed, you won’t be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley ‘s study,it makes sense that why people heat photographs of themselves Viscerally-on one level, they don’t even recognise the person in the picture as themselves, Facebook therefore ,is a self-enhancer’s paradise,where people can share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellect and lifestyle it’s not that people’s profiles are dishonest,says catalina toma of Wiscon—Madison university ,”but they portray an idealized version of themselves.

26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have found that ______.

A.our self-ratings are unrealistically high
B.illusory superiority is baseless effect
C.our need for leadership is unnatural
D.self-enhancing strategies are ineffective

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Text 1

  What would you do with 590m This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest unpided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton.
  These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly what was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time-as stories or memories-particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.
  This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most "happiness bang for your buck." It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib - a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.
  Readers of “HappyMoney” are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger.Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.

21. According to Dumn and Norton,which of the following is the most rewarding purchase

A.A big house
B.A special tour
C.A stylish car
D.A rich meal

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  Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have ___1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health.
  Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass pided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be pided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese.
  While such numerical standards seem ___9___ , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, ___10___ others with a low BMI may be in poor ___11___ .For example, many collegiate and professional football players ___12___ as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a ___13___ BMI.
  Today we have a(an) ___14___ to label obesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes___15___in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes ___16___ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. ___17___very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.
Negative attitudes toward obesity,____18____in health concerns,have stimulated a number ofanti-obesity____19____.My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facilities.Many employers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives.Michelle Obama has launched a high-visibility campaign____20____childhood obesity,even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat.

请在第__1__处填上正确答案。

A.denied
B.conduced
C.doubled
D.ensured

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Musicmeans different things to different people and sometimes even different thingsto the same person at different moments of his life. It might be poetic,philosophical, sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view,have something to do with the soul of the human being. Hence it ismetaphysical; but the means of expression is purely and exclusively physical:sound. I believe it is precisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysicalmessage through physical means that is the strength of music. (46)It is alsothe reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do isarticulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.

  Beethoven’simportance in music has been principally defined by the revolutionary nature ofhis compositions. He freed music from hitherto prevailing conventions ofharmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his late works a will to break allsigns of continuity. The music is abrupt and seemingly disconnected, as in thelast piano sonata. In musical expression, he did not feel restrained by theweight of convention. (47)By all accounts he was a freethinking person, anda courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for theunderstanding, let alone the performance, of his works.

  Thiscourageous attitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers ofBeethoven’s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, forexample in the use of dynamics. (48)Beethoven’s habit of increasing thevolume with an intense crescendo and then abruptly following it with a suddensoft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.

  Beethovenwas a deeply political man in the broadest sense of the word. He was notinterested in daily politics, but concerned with questions of moral behaviorand the larger questions of right and wrong affecting the entire society. (49)Especiallysignificant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with therights and responsibilities of the inpidual: he advocated freedom of thoughtand of personal expression.

  Beethoven’s music tends to move from chaos toorder as if order were an imperative of human existence. For him, order doesnot result from forgetting or ignoring the disorders that plague our existence;order is a necessary development, an improvement that may lead to the Greekideal of spiritual elevation. It is not by chance that the Funeral March is notthe last movement of the Eroica Symphony, but the second, so that sufferingdoes not have the last word. (50)One could interpret much of the work ofBeethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight itrenders life worth living.
正确翻译为______.

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As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that theirmemory and mental clarity are not what they used to be. We suddenly can’tremember ___1___ we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance’sname, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain ___2___, werefer to these occurrences as “senior moments.” ___3___ seemingly innocent,this loss of mental focus can potentially have a (n) ___4___ impact on ourprofessional, social, and personal ___5___.
Neuroscientists,experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there’sactually a lot that can be done. It ___6___ out that the brain needs exercisein much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental ___7___ cansignificantly improve our basic cognitive ___8___. Thinking is essentially a___9___ of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent, our ability to___10___ in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited.___11___, because these connections are made through effort and practice,scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate ___12___ mentaleffort.
Now, a newWeb-based company has taken it a step ___13___ and developed the first “braintraining program” designed to actually help people improve and regain theirmental ___14___.
The Web-basedprogram ___15___ you to systematically improve your memory and attentionskills. The program keeps ___16___ of your progress and provides detailedfeedback ___17___ your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it___18___modifies and enhances the games you play to ___19___ on the strengthsyou are developing—much like a(n) ___20___exercise routine requires you toincrease resistance and vary your muscle use.
请在第__1__处填上正确答案。

A.where
B.when
C.that
D.why

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In the following text.some sentences have been removed.For Questions 41—45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numberedblanks.There are two extra choices,which do not fit in any of the blanks.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
  Even if we could make it impossible for people to commit crimes,should weOr would doing so improperly deprive people of their freedom
This may sound like a fanciful concern,but it is an increasingly real one.The new federal transportation bill,for example,authorized funding for a program that seeks to prevent the crime of drunken driving not by raising public consciousness or issuing stiffer punishments—but by making the crime practically impossible to commit.(41)______ The Dadss program is part of a trend toward what I call the“perfect prevention”of crimedepriving people of the choice to commit an offense in the first place.The federal government’s Intelligent Transportation Systems program,which is creating technology to share data among vehicles and road infrastructure like traffic lights,could make it impossible for a driver to speed or run a red light.(42)______
  Such technologies force US to reconcile two important interests.On one hand is society’s desire for safety and security.On the other hand is the inpidual’S right to act freely. Conventional crime prevention balances these interests by allowing inpiduals the freedom to commit crime,but punishing them if they do.
  The perfect prevention of crime asks US to consider exactly how far inpidual freedom extends.Does freedom include a“right”to drive drunk.for instanceIt is hard to imagine that it does.(43)______
  For most familiar crimes(murder,robbery,rape,arson),the law requires that the actor have some guilty state of mind,whether it is intent,recklessness or negligence.
(44)______
  In such cases,using technology to prevent the crime entirely would not unduly burden inpidual freedom;it would simply be effective enforcement of the statute.Because there is no mental state required to be guilty of the offense,the government could require,for instance.that drug manufacturers apply a special tamper-proof coating to all pills,thusmaking the sale of tainted drugs practically impossible,without intruding on the thoughts of any future seller.
  But because the government must not intrude on people’s thoughts,perfect prevention is a bad fit for most offenses.(45) ______ Even if this could be known,perhaps with the help of some sort of neurological scan,collecting such knowledge would violate an inpidual’s freedom of thought.
  Perfect prevention is a politically attractive approach to crime prevention,and for strict— liability crimes it is permissible and may be good policy if implemented properly.But for most offenses,the threat to inpidual freedom is too great to justify this approach.This is not because people have a right to commit crimes;they do not.Rather,perfect preventionthreatens our right to be free in our thoughts,even when those thoughts turn to crime.
A.But there is a category of crimes that are forbidden regardless of the actor’s state of mindso.called strict—liability offenses.One example is the sale of tainted drugs. Another is drunken driving.
B.The Dadss program,despite its effectiveness in preventing drunk driving,is criticized as a violation of human rights because it monitors drivers’behavior and controls inpidual’s free will.
C.And the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of l998 has already criminalized thedevelopment of technologies that can be used to avoid copyright restrictions,making it effectively impossible for most people to illegally share certain copyrighted materials, including video games.
D.If the actor doesn’t have the guilty state of mind,and he commits crime involuntarily,in this case,the actor will be convicted as innocent.
E.Perfect prevention of a crime like murder would require the ability to know what a person was thinking in order to determine whether he possessed the relevant culpable mental state.
F.The program,the Driver Alcohol Detection System for Safety(Dadss),is developing in vehicle technology that automatically checks a driver’s blood—alcohol level and,if that level is above the legal limit,prevents the car from starting.
G.But what if the government were to add a drug to the water supply that suppressedantisocial urges and thereby reduced the murder rate This would seem like an obvious violation of our freedom.We need a clear method of distinguishing such cases.
___________

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  Sweden has a longstanding reputation as an egalitarian country with a narrow gendergap.But a national debate about gender equality has revealed substantial dissatisfaction,with some Swedes feeling it has gone too far.Rousing controversy now is the issue of gender pedagogy,a concept that emerged in the early 2000s and typically involves challenging gender stereotypes in learning material and in avoiding treating male and female pupils in a stereotypical manner.But what has sharpened the debate in Sweden has been the argument that schools should also be gender neutral,giving children the opportunity to define themselves as neither male nor female if they wish.
  Kristina Henkel,a gender expeIrt specializing in equality in schools,disputes the argument that gender pedagogy and neutrality are being foisted on Swedes.“Sweden has a long tradition of working with equality and this has had strong support among politicians,”
she says,and adds that“the question of gender neutrality,or of everyone having equal rights despite their gender,has also been driven by activists at the grassroots level.”
  But Elise Claeson,a columnist and a former equality expert at the Swedish
Confederation of Professions,disagrees.“I have long participated in debates with gender pedagogues and they act like an elite,”she says.“They tend to be well.educated.live in big cities,and have contacts in the media,and they clearly despise traditional people.”
  Ms.Claeson has been a vocal critic of the word“hen,”a new,gender.neutral pronoun that was recently included in the online version of the National Encyclopedia.Around the same time,Sweden’s first gender—neutral children’s book was published.The author,JesperLundqvist,uses hen throughout his book,completely avoiding han and hon,the Swedishwords for him and her.
  Claeson believes that the word hen can be harmful to young children because,she says,it can be confusing for them to receive contradicting messages about their genders in school,at home,and in society at large.“It is important to have your gender confirmed to you as a child.This does not limit childrenit makes them confident about their identity...Children ought to be allowed to mature slowly and naturally.As adults we can choose to expand and change our gender identities.”
  Last fall,nearly 200 teachers gathered in Stockholm to discuss how to avoid“traditional gender patterns”in schools.The conference was part of a research project run by the National Agency for Education and supported by the Delegation for Equality in Schools.“Iwork with these issues in Finland and Norway and it is clear to me that they have been inspired by the Swedish preschool—and school curricula,”says Ms.Henkel,the genderexpert.But Henkel also insists that gender equality is a rights issue that cannot simply be left to the state to handle.Instead,she says,it requires the active involvement of citizens.
“Rights are not something we receive and then don’t have to fight for.This is about a redistribution of power,and for that,initiative and action are needed,not just fancy legislation.”
The problem that bothers Swedes most nowadays is________.

A.the controversy about gender pedagogy in school
B.the attempt to experiment gender neutrality in school
C.the slow progress of gender equality in school
D.the stubbornly serious gender stereotype in school

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  It’s the part of the job that stock analyst Hiroshi Naya dislikes the mostphoning investor managers on a Saturday or Sunday when he’s working on a report and facing a deadline.In Japan,placing a work call to someone on the weekend“feels like entering someone’s house with your shoes on,”says Naya,chief analyst at Ichiyoshi Research Institute in Toky0.So last year,Naya started asking his questions via messages on Facebook.While a telephonecall seems intrusive,he says,a Facebook message“feels more relaxed.”
  Many Japanese have become fans of Mark Zuckerberg’s company in the past year.It’s taken a whileEven as Facebook took off in India,Indonesia,and other parts of Asia,it’s been a laggard in Japan since its local—language version debuted in 2008.The site faced cultural obstacles in a country where people historically haven’t been comfortable sharing personal information,or even their names,on the Internet.Homegrown rivals such as community website operator Mixi and online game portals such as DeNA allow their users to adopt pseudonyms.
  The Japanese are overcoming their shyness,though.In February,Facebook had 13.5million unique users,up from 6 million a year earlier.That puts Facebook in the N0.1position in Japan for the first time,ahead of Twitter and onetime leader Mixi.“Facebook didn,t have a lot of traction in Japan for the longest time,”says Arvind Rajan,Asia—Pacific managing director for LinkedIn,which entered the Japanese market last October and hopes to emulate Facebook’s recent success.“They really did turn the corner,”he says.Rajan attributes the change in attitude to the March 11,20 11,earthquake and tsunami.During the crisis and its aftermath,sites such as Facebook helped parents and children locate each other and allowed people post and find reliable information.“The real—name case has been answered.”says Rajan.“People are getting it now.”
  Japanese see Facebook as a powerful business t001.The real—name policy makes the site a good place to cultivate relationships with would_be partners.As more companies such as retailers Uniqlo and Muji turn to Facebook to reach Japanese consumers,the Silicon Valley company is benefiting from a virtuous cycle,says Koki Shiraishi,an analyst in Tokyo with Daiwa Securities Capital Markets.“It’s a chicken—and—egg thingIf everyone starts using it,then more people start using it.”
  As a result of Facebook’s rise.investors have soured on some of its rivalsDeNA’s stock price has dropped 24 percent in the past year,and Mixi’s has fallen 38 percent.Growth at Twitter--which also entered Japan in 2008--has stagnated,and the San Francisco company has partnered with Mixi to do joint marketing.Twitter Japan country manager James Kondo says there’s no reason to worry.Japan’s social networking scene“is a developing thing,”he says.“We,re not in a flat market where everyone is competing for a share of a fixed pie.”
Hiroshi Naya takes a fancy to Facebook because_______.

A.it enables him to reach out to business partners
B.it saves the trouble of face—to—face meeting
C.it flees him from making awkward calls
D.it makes him relaxed to make intrusive remarks

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  California is having problems with its death penalty.It hasn’t executed anyone since 2006,when a federal court ruled that its method of lethal injection was improper and could cause excessive pain.The state spent five years coming up with a better method——and last month,a judge threw that one out t00.One indication of just how encumbered California’s capital—punishment system isthe prisoner who brought the latest lethal—injection challenge has been on death row for 24 years.
  It isn’t just California.The Death Penalty Information Center reported last month that thenumber of new death sentences nationally was down sharply in 2011,dropping below 100 for the first time in decades.It also reported that executions were plummeting_______down 56% since 1999.
  There has long been an idea about how the death penalty would end in the U.S.the Supreme Court would hand down a sweeping ruling saying it is unconstitutional in all cases.
But that is not what is happening.Instead of top—down abolition.we seem to be getting it from the bottom up-governors,state legislatures,judges and juries quietly deciding not to support capital punishment.New Jersey abolished its death penalty in 2007.New Mexicoabolished its death penalty in 2009.There are now l6 states—0r about one—third of the country—that have abolished capital punishment.
  There are several reasons we seem to be moving toward de facto abolition of the death penalty.A major one has been the growing number of prisoners on death row who have been exonerated——139 and counting since 1973,according to a list maintained by the Death Penalty Information Center.Even many people who support capital punishment in theory balk when they are confronted with clear evidence that innocent people are being sentenced to death.
  Another factor is cost.Money is tight these days.and more attention is being paid to just how expensive death.penalty cases are.A 2008 study found that California was spending $137 million on capital cases—a sizable outlay,particularly since it was not putting anyone to death.
  According to the polls,a majority of the country has not yet turned against the death penalty——but support is slipping.In l994,80%of respondents in a Gallup poll said they supported the death penalty for someone convicted of murder.In 2001,just 61%did.In polls where respondents are given a choice between the death penalty or life without parole and restitution,a majority has gone with the non-death option.
  Many opponents of the death penalty are still hoping for a sweeping Supreme Courtruling,and there is no denying that it would have unique force.Five Justices,with a stroke of their pens.could end capital punishment nationwide.But bottom—up,gradual abolition has other advantages.What we are seeing is not a small group of judges setting policy.It is a large number of Americans gradually losing their enthusiasm for putting people to death.
The top—down abolition in Paragraph 3 refers to______.

A.the abolition of death penalty on a national scale
B.the abolition of death penalty decided by the supreme court
C.the abolition of death penalty at state level
D.the abolition of death penalty by referendum

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根据以下资料,回答题Directions
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments intoChinese.Your translation should be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
  Annual check—ups and company “wellness programmes”have become a familiar part of the corporate landscape.(46)Companies are now also starting to touch on a potentially troubling areatheir employees mental health.Companies as perse as BT.Rolls Royce and Grant Thornton have introduced mental health programmes ranging from training managers to spot problems to rehabilitating those suffering breakdowns
  The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health estimates that a sixth of the Bfitish workforce suffers from depression or stress.That mental ill health costs Bfitish employers almost$26 billion a year and American research suggests that“presenteeism”costs twice as much as absenteeism.Recently Grant Thornton sends its managers on a two day program put on by Positive Health Strategies,a London company.(47)Its program screens people forpsychological well being,and offers advice on“optimizing performance”and“staying positive under pressure”.Focusing on the upper ranks makes sense for companies.The stars not only represent huge profits.They are also most likely to live under stress while maintaining a stiff upper lip.But focusing on stars also makes sense for the mental wellness movement itselfthe best way to insert yourself into a company’s DNA is to seduce its leadership.
  (48)What should one make of the corporate world’s new found interest in promoting mental healthFor sure,depression and anxiety can take a serious toll on productivity,and companies bear their share of the blame for promoting stress in the first place.And catching psychological problems early can prevent them from escalating.This all sounds promising.
But there are nevertheless several troubling aspects.
  The first worry is that promoting psychological wellness crosses an important line between the public and the private,raising awkward questions.Should companies pry into people’s emotional livesCan they be trusted with the information they gatherAnd should psychologically frail workers put their faith in people who work primarily for their employers rather than in their personal doctorsWorkers rightly worry that companies will use psychological information in their annual appraisals. (49)And that bosses will see the trend as an excuse for extending their power over staff-using the veiled threat of somehow being classified as mentally impaired to make them obey,and conform
  A second worry is about the scientific foundations of the mental wellness movement.A phrase like“mental fitness”is bound to attract chalants and salesmen.Warren Bennis of the University of Southern California has noted that the new“science”of neuroleadership is “filled with banalities”.0ther people are less complimentary.The biggest problem with the movement lies in the assumption that promoting psychological wellness is as good as encouraging the physical sort.(50)Few would doubt that good physical health makes for good productivity;but it is not self-evident that a positive mental attitude is good for a worker or his outputhistory shows that misfits have contributed far more to creativity than perky optimists.Besides,curmudgeonliness is arguably a rational way to cope with an imperfect world,rather than a sign of mental maladjustment.Companies that chase the elusive“positive attitudes”may end up damaging themselves as well as sticking their noses where they have no business.
________

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Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments intoChinese.Your translation should be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.(10points)
  (46)Signs of American culture,ranging from fast food to Hollywood movies,can be seen around the world.But now anthropologists have discovered a far more troubling cultural export from the United States-stigma against fat people.
  Negative perceptions about people who are overweight are becoming the cultural norm in many countries,according to a new report in the journal Current Anthropology.(47)Although some of the shift in thinking likely is explained by idealized slim body images promoted inAmerican advertising and Hollywood movies,the emergence of fat stigma around the world may also result from public health efforts to promote obesity as a disease and a worrisomethreat to a nation’s health
  Researchers from Arizona State University Dr.Brewis and her colleagues recentlycompleted a multicountry study intended to give a snapshot of the international zeitgeist about weight and body image.(48)The researchers elicited answers of true or false to statementswith varying degrees of fat stigmatization.The fat stigma test included statements like,“People are overweight because they are lazy”and“Fat people are fated to be fat”.Usingmostly in person interviews,supplemented with questions posed over the Internet,they testedattitudes among 700 people in lo countries,territories and cities.
  The findings were troubling.Dr.Brewis said she fully expected high levels of fat stigma toshow up in the“Anglosphere”countries,including the United States,England and NewZealand,as well as in body conscious Argentina.(49)But what she did not expect was how strongly people in the rest of the testing sites that have historically held more positive views of larger bodies,including Puerto Rico and American Samoa expressed negative attitudes about weight.The results,Dr.Brewis said,suggest a surprisingly rapid“globalization of fat stigma.”
  To be sure,jokes and negative perceptions about weight have been around for ages.Butwhat appears to have changed most is the level of criticism and blame leveled at people who are overweight.(50)One reason may be that public health campaigns branding obesity as a disease are sometimes perceived as being critical of inpiduals rather than the environmental and social factors that lead to weight gain.“0f all the things we could be exporting to help people around the world,really negative body image and low self-esteem are not what we hope is going out with public health messaging.”Dr.Brewis said.
  Dr.Brewis notes that far more study is needed to determine the extent of fat stigma and whether people were experiencing more social or workplace discrimination as a result of the growing fat stigma.“I think the next big question is whether it’s going to create a lot of new suffering where suffering didn’t exist before.”Dr.Brewis said.“I think it’s important that wethink about designing health messages around obesity that don’t exacerbate the problem.”
_______

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根据以下资料,回答题In the following text,some sentences have been removed.For questions 41 45.choosethe most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks.Thereare two extra choices,which do not fit in any of the blanks.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
A.Running after Them Doesn’t Help Anybody
B.Remember Newton’S Third Law
C.Show Some Respect for the Things They Care About
D.18 Years OldThe Beginning of Adulthood
E.Know Strength and Weakness of Your Child
F.Don’t Look Under the Mattress
G.Be Consistent
  When Your child becomes a teenager,you’re well over halfway through the job of raising them,and you have only a few years left to instill all those values and principles you want them to go into adult life with.And suddenly,they look as if they’re throwing away all the work you’ve put in up to now.But actually,if you just keep your head,and follow these essential teenage Rules,you’11 find you come out the other end with a terrific adult you can really be proud of.
41.
  Unless your child is putting themselves in serious danger,you really do have to put up with it.The more you try to tell them。the more you push them in the opposite direction.They’re looking for something to kick at,to rebel against,because they’re programmed to.The more force you use.the more they’ll use.Remember N ewton’S third law of motionFor every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.So what can you do when you see them going wrongYou can tell them what you think,but don’t tell them What to do.
42.
  Teenagers are up to things you don’t want to know about.For example,your daughterhas gone!further than you’d like with her boyfriend.And they’ve almost certainly been offered drugs,but they won’t have any evidence of it hanging around in their room,so there’s no point looking under the mattress or reading their secret diary.
  And what are you going to do about it—conffont themI think not.You’ll severely damage your relationship,and they’ll just keep them under the floorboards instead.
  Maybe you should think back to the things you did as a teenager that you didn’t want your parents to know about.SeeYour kids are just being perfectly normal teenagers.
43.
  It’s one of the many paradoxes of teenagers.On the one hand,they want to rebel,to shock you,to do things that get to you,and on the other hand,they want your approval and your goodwill.So when you criticize your teenager’s choices,you criticize them.It’s an age of fragile egos and easily knocked self-esteem,and it’s easy to make your teenager feel that you disapprove.or even that you don’t like them.Whether it's their music or their politics or the way they dress or their decision to become vegetarian,they need to know that it’s okay with you.
44.
  Yon started off with 18 Years and counting.How many have you got leftBecause when you get to zero.they’ll be on their own.I know parents who are still looking after their kids when they’re 18.And the kids.not being crazy,let them do it.It takes two to play that game. You know your child’s strengths and weaknesses as well as anyone.So think through what thev still need to learn.and make sure they d0.If they’re hopeless with money,teach them to budget.Get them to do the family shopping for a week on your usual budget,or get firm about not pavingto fill up their car beyond the agreed amount.
45.
  Your kids need to know what is and isn’t acceptable.And they judge that by what was and wasn’t okay yesterday and the day before.If they’re not getting a consistent ruessage,they,re clueless as to how they have to behave,and those all important boundaries aren’t being properly maintained.That means the kids feel confused,insecure,and perhaps eVen unloved.
  If you've decided that you don’t allow the kids to stay late outside,you have to stick to it. Just because your little one was a bit sad about something today,and you’re feeling a bit down yourself anyway...no,no,no!Stop right there!Let them come back at once and it will be ten times harder to say no to them next time,and they won’t understand why·Say no now and you’re only being cruel to be kind.
__________

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根据以下资料,回答题
  Humans have never lacked for ways to get wasted.The natural world is full of soothing but addictive leaves and fruits and fungi,and for centuries,science has added them to the pharmacopoeia to relieve the pain of patients.In the past two decades,that’s been especially true.As the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations developed new policies to treat pain more actively,approaching it not just as an unfortunate side effect of illness but as a fifth vital sign,along with temperature,heart rate,respiratory rate and blood pressure.a bounty of new opoids(鸦片类药物)has rolled off Big Pharma’s production line.
  There was fentanyl,a synthetic opioid around since the l960s that went into wide use as a treatment for cancer pain in the l990s.That was followed by Oxycodone,a short-acting drug for more routine pain,and after that came Oxycontin,a 12-hour formulation of the same powerful pill.Finally came hydrocodone.The government considers hydrocodone aSchedule III drug--one with a“moderate or low”risk of dependency,as opposed to Schedule Il’s,which carry a“severe”risk.Physicians must submit a written prescription for Schedule II drugs;for Schedule IIl’s,they just phone the pharmacy.(Schedule I substances are drugs like heroin that are never prescribed.)For patients,that wealth of choices spelled danger.
  The result has hardly been surprising.Since 1990,there has been a tenfold increase inprescriptions for opioids in the U.S.,according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDCP).In l990 there were barely 6.000 deaths from accidental drug poisoning in the U.S.By 2007 that number had nearly quintupled to 27,658.
  Health officials do not tease out which drug is responsible for every death。and it’s not always possible.“There may be lots of drugs on board,”says Cathy Barber,director of the Injury Control Research Center at the Harvard School of Public Health.“Is it the opioid that caused the deathOr is it the combination of opioid,benzodiazepine and a cocktail the person had”Still,most experts agree that nothing but the exploding availability of opioids could be behind the exploding rate of death.
  Despite such heavy death toll,the suivellance over these popular pills faces regulatory maze.In early 2009,the FDA announced that it was initiating a“risk.evaluation and mitigation strategy”.The regulations the FDA is empowered to issue include requiring manufacturers to provide better information to patients and doctors,requiring doctors to meet certain educational criteria before writing opioid prescriptions and limiting the number of docs and pharmacies allowed to prescribe or dispense the drugs.“And with all that.”warns Dr.John Jenkins,director of the FDA’s Office of New Drugs,“we do still have to make sure patients have access to drugs they need.”Any regulations the FDA does impose won’t be announced until 2011 at the earliest and could take a year or more to roll out.That leaves millions of people continuing to fiU prescriptions.tens of thousands per year dying and patients in genuine pain wondering when a needed medication will relieve their suffering--and when it could lead to something worse.
Opoids are drugs______.

A.made from natural plants
B.that will result in addiction
C.classified as dangerous
D.used for pain—easing

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根据以下资料,回答题
  Invention and innovation have been quintessentially American pursuits from the earliest days of the republic.Benjamin Franklin was a world—famous scientist and inventor.Cyrus McCormick and his harvester,Samuel F.B.Morse and the telegraph.Alexander Graham Bell and the telephone--the l9th century produced a string of inventors and their world—changing creations.And then there was the greatest of them all,Thomas Alva Edison.He came up with the crucial devices that would give birth to three enduring American industrieselectrical power,recorded music and motion pictures.
  Much of the world we live in today is a legacy of Edison and of his devotion to science and innovation.Edison taught us to invent,and for decades we were the best in the world.But today,more than l60 years after Edison’s birth,America is losing its scientific edge.A landmark report released in May by the National Science Board lays out the numberswhile U.S.investment in R&D as a share of total GDP has remained relatively constant since the mid一1980s at 2.7%.the federal share of R&D has been consistently declining--even as Asian nations like Japan and South Korea have rapidly increased that rati0.At the same time,American students seem to be losing interest in science.Only about one。third of U.S. bachelor’s degrees are in science or engineering now,compared with 63%in Japan and 53% in China.
  It’s ironic that nowhere is America’s position in science and technology more threatened than in the industry that Edison essentially inventedenergy.Clean power could be to the 2 1 st century what aeronautics and the computer were to the 20th,but the U.S.is already falling behind.Meanwhile,Congress remains largely paralyzed.Though in May the House of Representatives was finally able to pass the$86 billion America Competes Reauthorization Act,which would double the budgets of the National Science Foundation(NSF)and Energy Department’s Office of Science,the bill’s fate is cloudy in the deadlocked Senate.“At this rate...we’ll be buying most of our wind generators and photovoltaic panels from other countries,”former NSF head Arden L.Bement said at a congressional hearing recently. “That’s what keeps me awake sometimes at night.”
  Some erosion of the U.S.’s scientific dominance is inevitable in a globalized world and might not even be a bad thing.Tomorrow’s innovators could arise in Shanghai or Seoul or Bangalore.And Edison would counsel against panic--as he put it once,“Whatever setbacks America has encountered,it has always emerged as a stronger and more prosperous nation.”But the U.S.will inevitably decline unless we invest in the education and research necessary to maintain the American edge.The next generation of Edisons could be waiting.But unlesswe move quickly,they won’t have the tools they need to thrive.
The author mentioned many inventors in the first paragraph to_____.

A.remind American of their historical heritage
B.highlight American’s loss of supremacy in scientific innovation
C.describe the heyday of America in science and innnovation
D.express his regret for the decline of American national power

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  The first time I tried shark—fin soup was at Time Warner’s annual dinner in Hong Kong.Shark_fin soup is a luxury item($100 bowl in some restaurants)in Hong Kong and Mainland China,its biggest consumers;it’s a dish that embodies east Asia’s intertwined notions of hospitality and keeping(or losing)“face”.“It’s like champagne”,says Alvin Leung,owner of Be Innovation,a Cantonese restaurant in Hong Kong.“You don’t open a bottle of Coke to celebrate.It’s a ritual.”
  Unfortunately,this gesture of hospitality comes with a price tag much bigger than that$ 100 bowl.All told,up t0 70 million sharks are killed annually for the trade,despite the fact that 30%of shark species are threatened with extinction.“Sharks have made it through multiple mass extinctions on our planet,”says Matt Rand,director of Pew’s Global Shark Conservation pision.“Now many species are going to go the way of the dinosaur--for a bowl of soup.”
  The shark—fin industry has gained notoriety in recent years not just because of what it’s doing to the global shark population but also because of what’s known as finning—the practice of catching a shark,removing its fins and dumping the animal back into the sea. While a pound of shark fin can go for up to$300,most shark meat isn’t particularlyvaluable,and it takes up freezer space and weight on fishing boats.Today,finning is illegal in the waters of the E.U.,the U.S.and Australia,among others;boats are required to carry a certain ratio of fins to carcasses(尸体)to prevent massive overfishing.But there are loopholes in antifinning laws that are easy to exploit.In the E.U.,for example,ships can land the fins separately from the carcasses,making the job of monitoring the weight ratio nearly impossible.In the U.S.,a boat found carrying nearly 65,000 1b.(30,000 kg)of illegal shark fms won a court case because it was registered as a cargo vessel,which current U.S.finning laws do not cover.
  Sharks populations can’t withstand commercial fishing the way more fertile marine species can.Unlike other fish harvested from the wild,sharks grow slowly.They don’t reach sexual maturity until later in life—the female great white,for example,at 12 to 14 years—and when they do.they have comparatively few offspring at a time,unlike,say,tunas,which release millions of eggs when they spawn.
  The shark’s plight is starting to be weighed against the delicacy’s cultural value.The conservation group has lobbied local restaurants that offer the classic nine—course banquet served at Cantonese weddings.of which shark fin is traditionally a part,to offer a n0—shark menu as a choice to couples.
  After my first encounter with shark.fin soup.I decided that.1ike my colleagues,I would probably skip it next time.Unfortunately,that next time came at an intimate dinner in a small,private dining room,where I was both a guest and a stranger.When the soup-the centerpiece of the meal—was set down before me,I ate it.Apparently,I'm not the only one to cave.“You go to a wedding,and you refused to eat it just because you feel you’re insulted--I'm not that extreme,”Leung,the chef,says.“If other people believe that it brings luck or brings face.I'd be a spoilsport.”To make a dent in the slaughter of the sharks,however,there are going to have to be a lot of people willing to spoil this particular sport.
Which of the following statements about shark—fin soup is true

A.It has a price tag much bigger than$100 bowl.
B.It carries rich cultural meaning.
C.It tastes like champagne.
D.It is expensive for its high nutrition.

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  One of the many pleasures of watching Mad Men,a television drama about theadvertising industry in the early 1960s,is examining the ways in which office life has changed over the years.One obvious change makes people feel good about themselvesthey no longer treat women as second—class citizens.But the other obvious change makes them feel a bit more uneasythey have lost the art of enjoying themselves at work.
  The ad—men in those days eaioyed simple pleasures.They puffed away at their desks.They drank throughout the day.They had affairs with their colleagues.They socialised not in order to bond,but in order to get drunk.Nowadays many companies are obsessed with fun. Software firms in Silicon Valley have installed rock—climbing walls in their reception areas and put inflatable animals in their offices.Wal-Mart orders its cashiers to smile at all and sundry. The cult of fun has spread like some disgusting haemorrhagic disease.
  This cult of fun is driven by three of the most popular management fads of the moment empowerment.engagement and creativity.Many companies pride themselves on devolving
power to front-line workers.But surveys show that only 20%of workers are“fully engaged with their.iob”.Even fewer are creative.Managers hope that“fun”will magically make workers more engaged and creative.But the problem is that as soon as fun becomes part of a corporate strategy it ceases to be fun and becomes its opposite-at best an empty shell and at worst a tiresome imposition.
  The most unpleasant thing about the fashion for fun is that it is mixed with a large dose of Dressure.Boston Pizza encourages workers to send“golden bananas”to colleagues who are“having fun while being the best”.Behind the“fun”there often lurks some crude management thinkinga desire to brand the company as better than its rivals,or a plan to boost productivity through team.building.Twitter even boasts that it has“worked hard to create an environment that spawns productMty and happiness”.
  While imposing fake fun on their employees,companies are battling against the realthing.Many force smokers to huddle outside like furtive criminals.Few allow their employees to drink at lunch time,let alone earlier in the day.A regiment of busybodies--from lawyers to human resources functionaries-is waging war on office romance,particularly between people of different ranks.
  The merchants of fake fun have met some resistance.When Wal—Mart tried to imposealien rules on its German staff-such as compulsory smiling and a ban on affairs with co-workers—it touched off a guerrilla war that ended only when the supermarket chainannounced it was pulling out of Germany in 2006.But such victories are rare.For most wage slaves forced to pretend they are having fun at work,the only relief is to poke fun at their tormentors.Mad Men reminds people of a world they have lost—a world where bosses did not think that“fun”was a management tool and where employees could happily quaff Scotch at noon.Cheers to that.
In the opening paragraph,the author introduces his topic by_____.

A.explaining a phenomenon
B.justifying an assumption
C.posing an argument
D.making a contrast

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  Insurance companies provide a service to the community by protecting it againstexpected and unexpected disasters.Before an insurance company will agree to ___1___anything,it collects accurate figures about the___2___.It knows,for example,that the risk of a man being killed in a plane accident is less than the risk he___3___ in crossing a busy road.This___4___ it to quote low figures for travel insurance.Sometimes the risk may be high,as in motorracing or mountaineering.Then the company___5___a much higher price.___6___too many climbers have accidents,the price rises still further.If the majority of climbers fall off mountains,the company will___7___ to insure them.
  An ordinary householder may wish to protect his home against fire or his ___8___ againstburglary.A shop keeper may wish to insure against___9___.Inlocases,the company willcheck its statistics and quote a premium.If it is___11___.it may refuse to quote.If it insures ashop and then receives a suspicious___12___,it will ___13___ the claim as a means of protecting itself against false claims.It is not unknown for a businessman in debt to burn down his own premises so that he can claim much money from his insurance company.He can be sure that the fire will be investigated most carefully.Insurance companies also___14___insurance against shipwreck or disaster in the air.Planes and ships are very expensive,SO a large___15___is charged,but a___16___is given to companies with an accident—free record.
  Every week insurance companies receive premium ___17___ from customers.Thesepayments can form a very large total___18___millions of dollars.The company does not leave the money in the bank.It___19___in property,shares,farms and even antique paintings and stamps.Its aim is to obtain the best possible return on its investment.This is not so greedy as it may seem,since this is one way by which it can deep its premiums down and continue to make a profit___20___being of service to the community.

A.assure
B.insure
C.ensure
D.pressure

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根据以下资料,回答题Directions
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order.For Questions 41-45,you arerequired to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box.The first and the last paragraphs have been placedfor you in Boxes.Mark your answers Oil the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
A.So what do we do to be safer Many smart people have tackled this question.PeterPronovost at Johns Hopkins developed a checklist shown to bring hospital-acquiredinfections down to close to zero.There are rules against disturbing nurses while they dispense medications and software that warns doctors when patients’prescriptions will interact badly.There are policies designed to empower nurses to confront doctors if they see something wrong,even if a senior doctor is at fault.
B.Here’S one theory.It is a given that American doctors perform a staggering number oftests and procedures,far more than in other industrialized nations.and far more than we used to.Since 1996,the percentage of doctor visits leading to at least five drugs being prescribed has nearly tripled.and the number of M.R.I.scans quadrupled.
C.Doctors make mistakes.They may be mistakes of technique,judgment.ignorance oreven,sometimes,recklessness.Regardless of the cause,each time a mistake happens。 a patient may suffer.We fail to uphold our profession’s basic oath“First.do no harm.”
D.Herein lies a stunning irony.Defensive medicine is rooted in the goal of avoidingmistakes.But each additional procedure or test,no matter how cautiously performed,injects a fresh possibility of error.CT and M.R.I.scans can lead to false positives and unnecessary operations,which carry the risk of complications like infections and bleeding.The more medications patients are prescribed.the more likely they are to accidentally overdose or suffer an allergic reaction。
E.According to a l999 report by the Institute of Medicine,as many as 98.000 Americans were dying every year because of medical mistakes.Today,exact figures are hard to come by because states don’t abide by the same reporting guidelines,and few cases gain as much attention as that of Rory Staunton,the l2一year—old boy who died of septic shock this spring after being sent home from a New York hospital.But a reasonable estimate is that medical mistakes now kill around 200,000 Americans every year.That would make them one of the leading causes of death in the United States.Why have these mistakes been so hard to prevent
F.What may be even more important is remembering the limits of our power.More--moreprocedures,more testing,more treatment--is not always better.In l979,StephenBergman,under the pen name Dr.Samuel Shem,published rules for hospitals in his caustically humorous novel,The House of God.Rule N0.13 reads“The delivery ofmedical care is to do as much nothing as possible.”First.do no harm.
G.Certainly many procedures,tests and prescriptions are based on legitimate need.But many are not.In a recent anonymous survey,oIrthopedic surgeons said 24 percent of the tests they ordered were medically unnecessary.This kind of treatment is a form of defensive medicine,meant less to protect the patient than to protect the doctor orhospital against potential lawsuits.
___________

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  For a large number of young adults in Britain,homeownership has become increasingly difficult to achieve,viewed as a distant goal attainable only later in life.if at all.
  That is a significant shift for Britain.For years owners occupy a higher percentage of homes in Britain than in the United States,France or Germany.0ne reason homeownership is so attractive in Britain is because property values dropped less drastically than in the United States,in part because of a shortage in housing.Prices in some large cities,including London,have even increased recently.People still perceive a home to be a better and safer investment than a pension fund.said Andrew Hull,research fellow at the Institute for Public Policy Research.“Homeownership is also culturally entrenched.”he said.“0wning a home is the main way of showing you made it.”
  The big shift toward homeownership came in the 1980s when Mrs.Thatcher issued fight-to.buy policy,which allowed many in rented government housing to buy their homes.About two million homes were sold,earning the government tens of billions of pounds.At the same time,the rental market became increasingly unattractive.Unlike Germany and otherContinental European countries,Britain’s private rental market is highly fragmented,withmany landlords and laws that generally favor the property owner.Most leases are for six months only,with landlords rarely agreeing to commit to longer terms;this makes renting highly insecure.
  But as the pain of government—imposed austerity sinks in,disposable income has shrunk and loan requirements have toughened,forcing more and more Britons into renting rather than buying.Over the last lo years the number of people who owned homes here dropped to 67 percent from 70 percent.Meanwhile,the number of people in private rented housing rose to 16 percent from lo percent over the same period.according to the Office for National Statistics.Rising demand has pushed up rents by an average of 4.4 percent over the last year,according to LSL Property Services.In London rents increased 7.8 percent.
  “A growing number of young would—be buyers are preparing for lifelong renting—by necessity rather than choice,”said Jonathan Moore,director of easyroommate.couk,a property Web site.Charlotte Ashton.30.has lived in rented accommodations ever since she left her parent’s home to attend university.She said she was saving for a down payment to buy her own home.“I do believe in the fundamentals of owning bricks and mortar as security for the future,more than leaving my money in the banks at a low interest rate,”said Ms. Ashton.who works in public relations.“But now it seems unless you have a very well paid job and are willing to save every penny,it’s unfeasible to buy without the help of the bank of Mum and Dad.”
  Some economists are concerned that as more people are forced to wait to buy a home,it could open up a widening of the wealth gap that already exists between homeowners and non homeowners,endangering the retirement prospects for a swelling group of young adults they call“generation rent.”It could also have implications for the cohesion of neighborhoods,Alison Blackwell,a research director at the National Center for Social Research and author of the Halifax report said.Renters tend to be less involved in local communities because they are forced to move more often.And the economy as a whole may suffer because renters tend to curb spending to save for a deposit.
For British people,buying home is_______.

A.a distant goal
B.a symbol of success
C.a compulsory choice
D.nothing but an investment

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根据以下资料,回答题
  The Belgian blue is an ugly but tasty cow that has 40%more muscle than it should have. It is the product of random mutation followed by selective breeding--as,indeed,are all domesticated creatures.But where an old art i/as led,a new one may follow.By understanding which genetic changes have been consolidated in the Belgian blue,it may be possible to design and build similar versions of other species using genetic engineering as a short—cut.And that is precisely what Terry Bradley,a fish biologist at the University of Rhode Island,is trying to do.Instead of cattle,he is doing it in trout.His is one of two projects that may soon put the first biotech animals on the dinner table.The other project is led by Aqua Bounty.
  It is one thing to make such fish,of course.It is quite another to get them to market. First,it is necessary to receive the approval of the regulators.In America,the relevant regulator is the Food and Drug Administration(FDA),which Aqua Bounty says it has been petitioning for more than a decade and which published guidelines for approving genetically engineered animals in 2009.Aqua Bounty has now filed its remaining studies for approval,and hopes to hear the result this year.Dr Bradley has not yet applied for approval.
  The FDA is concerned mainly with the healthfulness of what people put in their mouths,and it seems unlikely that the new procedures will yield something that is unsafe to eat.But what happens if the creatures escape and start breeding in the wildFor that to be a problem,the modified fish would have to be better at surviving and reproducing than those honed by millions of years of natural selection.On the face of it.this seems unlikely. because the characteristics that have been engineered into them are ones designed to make them into better food,rather than lean,mean breeding machines.
  But there is a chink in this argument.As Mark Abrahams,a biologist at MemorialUniversity in Newfoundland,points out,it is not just the fish that have been modified by man,but also the environment in which they could escape.Many of the creatures that eat salmon and trout,such as bears and some birds,have had their ranks thinned by human activity.Dr Abrahams thinks it possible that fast—growing salmon could displace the natural sort in places where predators are rare.
  Aqua Bountyis addressing such concerns by subjecting developing eggs to high pressures. The result,if all goes well,will be that animals follow plants down the biotech route. Whether people will actually want to buy or eat the new fish is a different matter--thoughthey buy the meat of Belgian blue cattle at a premium.Perhaps clever marketing could make“double-muscled”fish into a premium product,to0.If people will pay extra for meat from amonstrosity like the Belgian blue,anything is possible.
How was Belgian blue being created

A.It was produced like all other domesticated creatures.
B.It was produced by natural breeding.
C.It was produced using genetic engineering as a short.cut.
D.It was a product of cross breeding.

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  In 1910.Henry Van Dyke wrote a book called The Spimt of America,which opened with this sentenee“The Spirit of America is best known in Europe by one of its qualities—energy.”This has always been true.Americans have always been known for thelr mamc dvnamism.Some condemned this ambition as a scrambling after money.Others saw it in loftier terms.But energy has always been the country’s saving feature.
  So Americans should be especially alert to signs that the country is becoming less vital and assiduous.One of those signs comes to us from the labor market. According to figures from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development,the United States has a smailer share of prime age men in the work force than any other G-7 nation.
  Part of the problem has to do with human capital.More American men lack the
emotional and professional skills they would need to contribute.According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics,35 percent of those without a high school diploma are out of the labor force.compared with less than lo percent of those with a college degree.Part of the Droblem has to do with structural changes in the economy.Sectors like government,health care and high.tech have been growing,generating jobs for collegegrads. Sectors like manufacturing,agriculture and energy have been getting more productive,but they have not been generating more jobs.Instead,companies are using machines or foreign workers.
  The resuIt is thisThere are probably more idle men now than at any time slnce the Great Depression. and this time the problem is mostly structural,not cyclical.This is a big Droblem.It can’t be addressed through the sort of short—term Keynesian stimulus some on the left are still fantasizing about.It can’t be solved by simply reducing the size of government,as some on the right imagine.
  It will.probably require a broad menu of policies attacking the problem all at once expanding community colleges and online learning;changing the corporate tax code and labor market rules to stimulate investment;adopting German-style labor market practices like apprenticeship programs,wage subsidies and programs that extend benefits to the unemployed for six months as they start small businesses.
  Reinvigorating the missing fifth--bringing them back into the labor market and using their capabilities-will certainly require money.If this were a smart country.we’d be having a debate about how to shift money from programs that provide comfort and toward programs that spark reinvigoration.
  But,of course,that’S not what is happening.Discretionary spending,which might be used to instigate dynamism,is declining.Health care spending,which mostly provides comfort to those beyond working years,is expanding.Attempts to take money from health care to open it up for other uses are being crushed.We’re locking in the nation’S wealth into the Medicare program and closing off any possibility that we might do something significant to reinvigorate the missing fifth.Next time you see a politician demagoguing Medicare,ask thisShould we be using our resources in the manner of a nation in decline or one still committed to stoking the energy of its people and continuing its rise
The loss of American dynamism concerned by the author is mainly manifested in the fact that_______.

A.American young are more indolent than their counterparts in other countries
B.America suffered from a higher rate of unemployment than other countries
C.More American young are out of work than their counterparts in other countries
D.American young are obssessed with the incessant quest for material comforts

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根据以下资料,回答题
  It has been justly said that while“ we speak with our vocal organs we__1___wlth our whole bodies.”All of US communicate with one another___2___,as well as with words.
Sometimes we know what we’re doing,as with the use of gestures such as the thumbs’upsign to indicate that we __ 3__ .But most of the time we’re not aware that we’re doing it.We gesture with eyebrows or a hand,meet someone else’S eyes and __4__ .These actions we __ 5__are random and incidental.But researchers___6___that there is a system of them almost as consistent and comprehensible as language,and they conclude that there is a whole___7___of body language.__ 8__the way we move,the gestures we employ,the posture we adopt,the facial expression we___9___,the extent to which we touch and distance we stand___10___each other.
  Body language serves a variety of purposes.Firstly it can replace verbal mmunication, __ 11___with the use of gesture.Secondly it can modify verbal communication. Loudness and ___12 ___ 0f voice is an example here.Thirdly it regulates social interactionturn taking IS largely governed by onverbal___13___.Fourthly it conveys our emotions and attitude. This is __ 14__important for successful cross—cultural communication.
  Every culture has its own body language,and children absorb its nuances___15___with sDoken language.The way an Englishman crosses his legs is___16___ like the way a male American does it.When we communicate with people from other cultures,the body language sometimes help make the communication easy and___17___,such as shaking hand is such a __ 18__gesture that people all over the world know that it is a signal for greeting.But sometimes the body language can cause certain misunderstanding___19___ people of different cultures often have different forms of behavior for sending the same message or have different__ 20__towards the same body signals.

A.address
B.reverse
C.converse
D.confer

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  Spain’s government is now championing a cause called“right to be forgotten”.(46)It has ordered Google to stop indexing information about 90 citizenswhofi led for malcom plaints with its Data Protection the Agency.All 90 people wanted information deleted from the Web. Among them was a victim of domestic violence who discovered that her address could easily be found through Google.Another,well into middle age now,thought it was unfair that a few computer key strokes could unearth an account of her arrest in her college days.
  (47)-They might not-have received much of a hearing in the United States,where Google一 is based and where courts have consistently found that the right to publish the truth about someone's past supersede sany right to privacy.But here,as elsewhere in Europe,an idea has taken hold--inpiduals should have a“right to be forgotten”on the Web.
  (48)In fact,the phrase "right to be forgotten" is being usedt0coverabatchofissues,ranging from those in the Spanish case to the behavior of companies seeking to.Make money from privat einfor mation that can becolle ctedoil the Web.
  (49)Spain's Data Protection Agency believes that searchengines havealteredtheprocess by which most data ends up for gotten and there for eadjustments need to be made.The deputy dlrector of the agency,Jesfis Rubi,pointed to the official government gazette(公报),which used to publish every weekday,including bankruptcy auctions,official pardons.And who passed the civil service exams.Usually 220 pages of fine print.it quickly ended up gathering dust on various backroom shelves.The information was still there.but not easily accessible .Then two years ago,the 350 yearold publication went online.making it possible for embarrassing information--no matter how oldto be obtained easily.
  The publisher of the government publication, Fernando P6rez, said it was meant to foster transparency.Lists of scholarship winners,for instance,make it hard for the government officials to steer all the money to their own children.“But maybe.”he said,“there is information that has a life cycle and only has value for a certain time."
  Many Europeans are broadly uncomfortable with the way personal information is foundby search engines and used for commerce.When ads pop up on one’S screen.clearly linked to Subjects that are of interest to him,one may find it Orwellian.A recent poll conducted by the European Union found that most Europeans agree.Three out of four said they were worried about how Internet companies used their information and wanted the right to delete personal data at any time.Ninety percent wanted the European Union to take action on the right to be forgotten.
  (50) Experts say that Google and other search engines see some of these court cases as an assault on a principle of law already established--that search engines are essentially not responsible for the information they corral from the Web.And hope the Spanish court agrees.The companies believe if there are orivacy issues,the complainants should address those who posted the material on the Web.But some experts in Europe believe that search engines should probably be reined in.“They are the ones that are spreading the word.Without them 110 0ne would find these things.”
_______

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  As a father to three young girls.I have been particularly struck over the past several months by the flurry of public activity related to childhood obesity.While the effoIrts are well- intentioned.it’s worrisome to watch the movement gain momentum when we still don’t really know whether what we’re doing is actually working—nor do we really know if there will be any downsides to the anti—obesity initiative.The most recent major move in the fight against childhood obesity came on Jan.25 when First Lady Michele Obama announced that school meal options were going to get a lot healthier.It is,undoubtedly,a good idea to make school lunches more nutritious,although some research suggests that by the time a child gets to school,his or her tastes for high calorie or otherwise unhealthy food is already in place and that changing lunch doesn’t make them eat healthier at home.In other words,school_based initiatives may be too little too late for those children who may be predisposed,whether through genetics or environment or both,towards obesity.
  According to the Centers for Disease Control.17%of all children and adolescents in theU.S.are obese.Yet the majority of obesity programming,especially in our schools,is applied to the child and adolescent populations as a whole.Sure,promoting healthy eating,regardless of one’s weight or age,seems like a positive thing on the surface.But here’s the potential downsideWe know kids and teens react differently than adults to external pressures like persistent messaging.Sometimes these pressures can translate into incredible waves of anxiety and fear.At the extreme,a healthy.weight youth could be pushed to monitor his weight more frequently or even begin an unsupervised diet——behaviors that might represent an impending eating disorder.
  So the real question is what are children saying and how are they behaving in light of our anti‘obesity effort'A nationally representative survey,conducted last September by theC.S.
Mott Children’s Hospital National Poll on Children’s Health。attempted to answer this question.The results,released in January,showed that 30%of parents of children age 6—14 report worrisome eating behaviors and physical activity in their children;17%of parents report that their children are worried about their weight7%say their children have been made to feel bad at school about what or how much they were eatingand 3%of parents report their children had a sudden interest in vegetarianism.Certainly these data do not directly link the anti—obesity effort and eating disorders.They also do not offer any insight into whether obese children are actually losing weight.They do,however,serve as a reminder of how vulnerable these“worried”children already are to disordered eating and that everything we do,no matter how well—placed our intent,carries risk.
  With that said,we shouldn’t stop promoting healthy eating habits in our children.And we shouldn’t necessarily downplay our anti.obesity efforts for fear of increasing the rate of childhood eating disorders.Instead,we should just be mindful——with their wonderful and special abilities as well as their unpredictabilities,children surely deserve an approach and awareness that is as well—thought out and balanced as the meals we’d like them to eat.
Michelle Obama’s proposal concerning school meals meets with some controversy
because_______.

A.people doubt whether the meal provided by schools can meet nutritious standards
B.people doubt to which extent school meals can change the eating habit of children
C.people worry that parents may not supervise children when they are overeating at home
D.people believe that the predisposition to obesity is genetically and environmentally destined

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  By now,the 2012 Republican presidential contenders have all been tattooed by the opposition,branded as boring,damaged,or even insane.The entire GOP(共和党的别称)is “mad,”as The New Republic recently put it,and the party’s White House hopefuls display what The New Yorker calls“crackles of craziness.”This kind of talk flows both ways.Of course.But what if the big problem with Washington--isn’t nuttiness so much as a lack of it
  That’s one takeaway from A First—Rate Madness,a new book of psychiatric case studies by Nassir Ghaemi,director of the Mood Disorders Program at Tufts Medical Center.He argues that what sets apart the world’s great leaders isn’t some splendidly healthy mind but an exceptionally broken one,coupled with the good luck to lead when extremity is needed. “Our greatest crisis leaders toil in sadness when society is happy.”writes Ghaemi.“Yet when calamity occurs,if they are in a position to act,they can lift up the rest of us.”
  If so,then what we need for these calamitous times is a calamitous mind,a madman in chief,someone whose abnormal brain can solve our abnormal problems.Perhaps thenicotine—free.no—drama Obama won’t do after all.The good doctor isn’t saying that all mental illness is a blessing.Only that the common diseases of the mind--mania,depression,and related quirks--shouldn’t disqualify one from the upper stairs of public life,and for a simple reasonthey are remarkably consistent predictors of brilliant success.
  Depression in all its forms(which Ghaemi finds in Abraham Lincoln and the mildly
bipolar Churchill)brings suffering,which makes one more clear—eyed,fit to recognize the world’s problems,and able to face them down like the noonday demon.Madness in all its forms(which Ghaemi detects in FDR and JFK)brings resilience,which helps one learn from failure,often with enough creativity to make a new start.Most originally,Ghaemi coins“the inverse law of sanity”the perils of well—being.It’s why the poor,sane Neville Chamberlain chummed around with Nazi leaders while Churchill’s“black do9”foresaw a fight.
  In Ghaemi’s view,even our supposedly crazy leaders were too sane for their times,and the nation suffered.When Richard Nixon faced the Watergate crisis.“he handled it the way an average normal person would handle ithe lied,and he dug in,and he fought.”Similarly,George W.Bush was“middle of the road in his personality traits.”which is why his response to the September 11 attacks was simplistic,unwavering,and,above all,“normal.”
  So should we bring on the crazy in 2012 At the very least,we should rethink our definitions and stop assuming that normality is always good,and abnormality always bad.If Ghaemi is right,that is far too simplistic and stigmatizing,akin to excluding people by race or religion--only possibly worse because excellence can clearly spring from the unwell,and mediocrity from the healthy.The challenge is getting voters to think this way,too.It won’t do to have candidates shaking Prozac bottles(一种治疗抑郁症的药物)from the podium,unless the public is ready to reward them for it.Amid multiple wars and lingering recession.maybe that time is now.
According to Nassir Ghaemi,which of the following is Not the necessary conditions to make a great leader

A.Mature charm as a leader.
B.Stirring external situation.
C.Disturbed personal disposition.
D.A position to exert full potential.

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  Being good-looking is useful in so many ways.In addition to whatever personal pleasure it gives you,being attractive also helps you earn more money,find a higher—earning spouse and get better deals on mortgages.Each of these facts has been demonstrated over the past 20 years by many economists and other researchers.The effects are not smallone study showed that an American worker who was among the bottom one—seventh in looks,as assessed by randomly chosen observers,earned lo t0 15 percent less per year than a similar worker whose looks were assessed in the top one—third—a lifetime difference,in a typical case,of about$230,000.
  Most of us.regardless of our professed attitudes,prefer as customers to buy from better-looking salespeople,as jurors to listen to better-looking attorneys,as voters to be led by better-looking politicians.as students to learn from better-looking professors.This is not amatter of evil employers’refusing to hire the uglyin our roles as workers,customers and potential lovers we are all responsible for these effects.
  How could we remedy this injusticeA radical solution may be neededwhy not offerlegal protections to the ugly,as we do with racial,ethnic and religious minorities,women and handicapped inpidualsWe actually already do offer such protections in a few places,including in some jurisdictions in California,and in the District of Columbia,where discriminatory treatment based on looks in hiring,promotions,housing and other areas is Drohibited.The mechanics of legislating this kind of protection are not as difficult as you might think.Ugliness could be protected generally in the United States by small extensions of the Americans With Disabilities Act.Ugly people could be allowed to seek help from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and other agencies in overcoming the effects of discrimination.
  You might argue that people can’t be classified by their looks——that beauty is in the eye of the beholder.In one study,more than half of a group of people were assessed identically by each of two observers using a five.point scale;and very few assessments differed by more than one point.
  There are possible other oNections.“Ugliness”is not a personal trait that many people choose to embrace;those whom we classify as protected might not be willing to admit that they are ugly.But with the chance of obtaining extra pay and promotions amounting to $230.000 in lost lifetime earnings.there’s a large enough incentive to do S0.Bringing anti—discrimination lawsuits is also costly,and few potential plaintiffs could afford to do so.But many attorneys would be willing to organize classes of plaintiffs to overcome these costs,just as they now do in racial.discrimination and other lawsuits.
  Economic arguments for protecting the ugly are as strong as those for protecting some groupscurrently covered by legislation.So why not go ahead and expand protection to the looks—challengedThere’s one legitimate concern.with increasingly tight limits on government resources,expanding rights to yet another protected group would reduce protection for groups that have commanded Our legislative and other attention for over 50 years.You might reasonably disagree and argue for protecting all deserving groups.Either way,you shouldn’t be surprised to see theUnited States heading toward this new legal frontier.
The main idea of the first paragraph is that_______.

A.looking has something to do with the economic prospect of a person
B.the discrimination against the bad-looking is prevalent in daily life
C.the bad looking men earned l0—15 percent less than ordinary men per year
D.the shame of being ugly will go with a person through his life

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  A curious phenomenon occurs during every economic crisis--the rich whine that they are the ones who are suffering most.In current context,the wealthy even demands more tax cuts and more cuts in spending for programs aiding the poor,as every Republican presidential candidate promises.
  I first noticed this woe-is-me attitude among the rich in l974 when Alan Greenspan had just been named chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers.One of his first tasks was to address a conference with emphasis on cutting programs to aid the poor,which broughtdemonstrators to the event.In an effort to show that everyone was suffering from inflation,Mr.Greenspan said,“If you really wanted to examine percentage.wise who was hurt the most on their income,it was Wall Street brokers.”
  The urge to find ways to pity the well—off is still alive and well.Last week,BloombergNews reported that declining bonuses are creating severe hardship for many in the top 1percent of income distribution.One of them,Andrew Schiff,complained that his$350,000salary barely covers his expenses.Others lamented that they could no longer go to Aspen toski and must buy discount salmon.
  I have to admit that everyone’s suffering is sunective.But there does seem to be awidespread view that the poor don’t suffer as much from economic downturns because theyare used to being at the bottom.As Bob Dylan put it,“When you got nothing,you gotnothing to lose.”Those with expectations of staying on top,who have grown used to living the good life,no doubt do suffer meaningfully when those expectations are shattered and theymust learl)to get by on incomes only five or l o times the poverty—level income rather than 20 or 30 times.
  Admittedly,there doesn’t yet seem to be much downside for Republican candidates
pandering to the rich.For one thing,they all have billionaires and other ultrarich people funding super political action committees for them.But one of these days,the Republicannominee will be chosen and will have to compete in the general election against PresidentObama.And it is unlikely that the Republican nominee can win with only conservativeRepublican votes;he will have to reach out to those who don’t necessarily believe that cutting taxes for the rich is the one and only policy that will stimulate growth.
  As a January poll from the Pew Research Center shows,tw0—thirds of Americans see strong conflict between the rich and the poor,up from 47 percent in 2009.And a number of polls show that Americans support higher tax rates on millionaires by a ratio of 2-to-1 0r more.I think the Republican nominee is going to have a hard time responding if all he has to say is the rich need more tax cuts to compensate them for all their suffering during the economic crisis.
From the passage,we know that Allan Greenspan______.

A.is a successful economic advisor that wins unparaUel popularity
B.identifies with the Republicans in tax cut for the rich and aid cut for the poor
C.backs up the rich’s claim that they are hardest hit in economic crisis
D.sympathizes more with the have-nots than with the haves

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  At work.as in life.attractive women get a lot of good lucks.Studies have shown that they are more likely to be __1__ than their plain-Jane colleagues because people tend to Droject __2__ traits __3__ them,such as a sensitive heart and a cool head,they may also be at an __4__in job interviews.But research suggests otherwise.
  Brad Hanks at Georgia State University looked at what happens when job hunters include Dhotos with their resume,as is the__5__in much of Europe and Asia.The pair sent made—up applications to over 2,500 real-life __ 6 __ .For each job,they sent two very similar resume,one with a photo.one without.Subjects had previously been graded for their attractiveness.
  For men.the results were__7__expected.Hunks were more likely to be called for an interview if they included a photo.Ugly men were better off not including one.However,for women this was __8__.Attractive females were less likely to be offered an interview if they included a mugshot.When applying directly to a company(rather than through an agency)an attractive woman would need to send out 11 CVs on average__9 __ getting an interview;an__10__ qualified plain one just seven.
  At first.Mr.Hanks considered __11__ he calls the“dumb—blonde hypothesis”--that people__12__beautiful women to be stupid.__13__,the photos had also been rated on how__14__ people thought each subject looked;there was no__15___between perceived intellect and beauty.
  So the cause of the discrimination must l6 elsewhere.Human resources departments tend to be__17__mostly by women.Indeed,in the Israeli study,93%of those tasked with selecting whom to invite for an interview were female.The researchers’unavoidable—and unDalatable—conclusion is that old.fashioned __18__led the women to discriminate__19__ pretty candidates.
  So should attractive women simply attach photos that make them look dowdyNo.Better.says Mr.Ruffle,to discourage the practice of including a photo altogether.Companies might even consider the__20__model used in the Belgian public sector,where CVs do not even include the candidate’S name.

A.recruited
B.offended
C.promoted
D.flattered

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  International investors seem incapable of ending their love affair with the dollar. America’s economy has slowed sharply this year,yet its currency has risen to a 15 year high in trade weighted terms.(46)Against the euro the dollar touched$0.888%higher than in early January and close to the level at which the European Central Bank and the Federal Reserve joitly intervened to prop up the European currency last September.Why is the euro looking sickly
  There are plenty of theories.0De is that the markets do not trust the ECB: (47)the euro area economies are not immune to America’s downturn,yet the central bank still seems more concerned with fighting inflation than with supporting growth;another more plausible explanation is that,in an uncertain global economic climate,the dollar has resumed its traditional role as a safehaven currency.Most economists reckon that the euro is undervalued and expect a rebound over the next year.One of the most optimistic is Goldman Sachs.which is predicting a rate of$1.22 in 12 months.
  But an analysis by David Owen,an economist at Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein,gives pause for thought.(48)He has found that,over the past decade,movements in the real exchange rate of the euro against the dollar have closely reflected the difference between productivity growth in the euro area and in America.When productivity growth in America has been faster than in Europe--as it was in most of the late 1990s the euro falls.and vice versa.This is exactly what economic theory would predictcountries with faster productivity growth in the traded goods sector should see rising real exchange rates.Mr.Owen uses monthly data for productivity growth in manufacturing,a good proxy for the traded goods sector.Using annual productivity data for the whole economy(which are available over a longer period).the broad relationship between the exchange rate and relative productivity growth in America and Europe seems to have persisted for most of the past 30 years.
  Mr.Owen reckons that.in the short term,America’s downturn will reduce the productivity gap between America and the euro area,and so boost the eur0.(49)But in the long.Termhe expect,sproductivity.growth toremain faster in America--in which case,a sustained rise in the euro is unlikely over the next few years.Only if the downturn completely kills the belief in America’s new paradigm,and its productivity growth plummets,will the euro be able to rebound more permanently
  The strength of the dollar this year does indeed seem to hinge on a belief among investors that America’S slowdown will be brief,and that in the longer run America remains the best place in which to invest.(50)But they may be underestimating the potential for productivitygai nsin Eourope,as the singlecurrency boosts competition and encourages firms toexp10it,econoom,ies of scale through mergers and acquisitions.The adoption of more flexible working practices in many countries should also help to improve productivity.
  Studies in America suggest that the bulk of its productivity gains from information technology come from the use of it rather than from its production So the euro area,too, should start to enjoy productivity gains over the next decade,as it makes fuller use of it If you believe that Europe really is starting to change,buy Euros If not,stick with the darling dollar.
_____

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A.But scientists are still working to improve on that,and among them is socialpsychologist Aldert Vrij of the University of Portsmouth in England.Vrij has been using akey insight from his field to improve interrogation methods.In short,the truth is automatic and effortless,and lying is the opposite of that.It is intentional,deliberateand exhausting.The human mind,despite its impressive abilities,has limited capacity for how much thinking it can handle at any one time.So piling on demands foradditional.simultaneous thought--orcognitive“load”--compromisesnormalinformation processing.
B.When Vrij and his colleagues asked volunteers what their offices looked like.after instructing half to tell the truth about their occupations and half to lie,both truth tellersand liars gave the same amount of detail in their verbal responses.But when Vrij askedthem to draw their offices,the liars’drawings were much less detailed than those of thetruth tellers.
C.All these tricks may seem like overkill when we think about the fictional detectives weknow,including Holmes Sherlock,who seem able to ferret out every falsehood theyhear without using any strategies other than their intuition.But in real life,such people are exceedingly rare;and researchers have been trying--without a lot of success--to unravel these genius’strategies.Until they d0,less sophisticated lie catchers may beable to exploit the mind’s cognitive deficits,using tricks such as Vrij’s,to catch thebad guys in their deceptions.
D.And in fact,that is just what happens in the labVrij ran an experiment in which half the liars and truth tellers were instructed to recall their stories in reverse order.When observers later looked at videotapes of the complete interviews,they correctly spotted only 42 percent of the lies people told when recounting their stories without fabrication-- below average,which means they were hard to spot—but a remarkable 60 percent whenthe liars were compromised by the reverse storytelling.
E.Psychological scientists are fascinated by keen lie spotter.Detecting lies and liars isessential to effective policing and prosecution of criminals,but it is maddeninglydifficult.Most of us can correctly spot barely more than half of all lies and truths through listening and observation--meaning we are wrong almost as often as we are right.And half a century of research has done little to polish this unimpressive trackrecord.
F.Another strategy that could be surprisingly effective is to ask suspects to draw a picture.
Putting pencil to paper forces people to give spatial information-something that most liars have not prepared for as part of planning their lies and that,therefore,overtaxes their mental resources.
G.Here are a few strategies that Vrij and his colleagues have been testing in the laboratory.
One intriguing strategy is to demand that suspects tell their stories in reverse.Narrating backward increases cognitive load because it runs counter to the natural forward sequencing of events.Because liars already have depleted cognitive resources,they should find this unfamiliar mental exercise more taxing than truth tellers do—which should increase the likelihood that they will somehow betray themselves.
_________

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  Just 10 yesrs into a new century,more than two-thirds of the country sees the past decade as a period of decline for the U.S..according to a new TIME poll that probed Americans on the decade since the tragic events of Sept.1 1.2001.The poll confirms that the country is going through one of its longest sustained periods of unhappiness and pessimism ever.Today’s teenagers hardly remember a time before 9/1 1,the war on terrorism,the war in Iraq and constant economic upheaval.Baby boomers,the generation known for continuous reinvention,are filled with worry and doubt about their future and the future of their children.
  It is hard to overstate what a fundamental change this represents.A country long celebrated for its optimism amid adversity is having trouble finding the pluck and the spirit that have seen it through everything from world wars to nuclear threats to space races.The U.S.usually bounces back after a few years of difficulty.such as the Vietnam War. Watergate or recessions.After two or three years of anxiety and worry,the electoratenormally returns to its innate optimism.Yet the forces now aligned against the American people seem much more formidable to those we surveyed.
  According to the poll,only 6%of more than 2,000 Americans believe the country has completely recovered from the events of 9/1 1.Some of this pessimism can be tied to fears of more terrorist attacks.Despite the death of Bin Laden,most Americans think another terrorist attack in the U.S.is likely.Americans generally supported the post-9/1 1 measures to secure the homeland,like those in the Patriot Act。and have confidence in the military to deal with terrorists--and yet they see an attack coming anyway.America’s feelings of invincibility have been replaced by a new sense of inevitable vulnerability.
  Post一9/1 1 Americans also take a“leave.me。alone”attitude toward the rest of world. Most respondents have no desire to be more involved in global affairs.Almost tw0—thirds (62%)believe the U.S.today is too involved overseas.But what,ever the U.S.’s worries about external forces,the biggest threats today are widely regarded as self-made.It’s the enemy within that Americans register the most concern aboutrunaway deficits,political conflicts,skyrocketing health care costs and other structural problems.
  If there is widespread agreement that the U.S.is in bad shape,there is also a perception that not everyone has experienced the difficult decade in exactly the same way.Those surveyed say middle—and working—class Americans,followed by seniors and younger people, have borne the brunt of the decline.Yet those surveyed said some demographic groups were better off than they were a decade ago;they say the quality of life has improved most for gays and lesbians,the affluent,Hispanics and immigrants.And while overall the U.S.is seen as becoming more socially and politically tolerant in the past decade,the majority agreed that 9/11 set off a wave of suspicion against Muslim Americans.
  President Jimmy Carter rather famously gave a speech in mid一1979 suggesting that a crisis of confidence had befallen America.It took several years and a new President to return the country to its optimistic ways.President Bill Clinton faced a similar moment in 1995 and turned the mood of the country around a year later.This poll suggests we are at another malaise moment,one even longer and deeper than the mid一1970s’,presenting even greaterchallenges--and opportunities--for leadership.
In Paragraph 4,the author suggests that American have become more_______in foreign affairs after 9/11.

A.arrogant
B.detached
C.involved
D.patriotic

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  Years ago,Charlie,a highly respected orthopedist and a mentor of mine,found a lump in his stomach.He had a surgeon explore the area,and the diagnosis was pancreatic cancer.
He went home the next day,closed his practice,and never set foot in a hospital again.He focused on spending time with family and feeling as good as possible.Several months later,he died at home.He got no chemotherapy,radiation,or surgical treatment.Medicare didn’tspend much on him.
  It’s not a frequent topic of discussion,but doctors die,t00.And they don’t die like the rest of us.What’s unusual about them is not how much treatment they get compared to most Americans,but how little.Of course,doctors don’t want to die;they want to live.But they know enough about modern medicine to know its limits.Almost all medical professionals have seen what we call“futile care”being performed on people.That’s when doctors bring the cutting edge of technology to bear on a grievously ill person near the end of life.The patient will get cut open,perforated with tubes,hooked up to machines,and assaulted with drugs.I cannot count the number of times fellow physicians have told me,in words that vary only slightly.“Promise me if you find me like this that you’ll kill me.”
  How has it come to this—that doctors administer so much care that they wouldn’t want for themselvesThe simple,or not—s0—simple,answer is thispatients,doctors,and the system.
  To see how patients play a role,imagine a scenario in which someone has lostconsciousness and been admitted to an emergency room,and shocked and scared familymembers find themselves caught up in a maze of choices.When doctors ask if they want“everything”done.they answer yes.Then the nightmare begins.Feeding into the problemare unrealistic expectations of what doctors can accomplish.For example,many people think of CPR as a reliable lifesaver when,in fact,the results are usually poor.
  But of course it’s not just patients making these things happen.Doctors play an enabling role,too.The trouble is that even doctors who hate to administer futile care must find a way to address the wishes of patients and families.Imagine,once again,the emergency room with those grieving family members.They do not know the doctor.Establishing trust and confidence under such circumstances is a very delicate thing.People are prepared to think the doctor is acting out of base motives,trying to save time,or money,or effort,especially if the doctor is advising against further treatment.
  It's easy to find fault with both doctors and patients in such stories,but in many ways all the parties are simply victims of a larger system that encourages excessive treatment.In some unfortunate cases,doctors use the fee.for-service model to do everything they can,no matter how pointless.to make money.More commonly,though,doctors are fearful oflitigation and do whatever they’re asked to avoid geeing in trouble.
The real problem the author is concerned about in this article is________.

A.the overtreatment for dying patients
B.the different attitude of doctor and patients toward death
C.the disproportionately high medicare expenditure in America
D.the unequal and non.transparent doctor—patient relationship

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  Why should we bother reading a bookAll children say this occasionally.Many among our educated classes are also asking why,in a world of accelerating technology,increasing time poverty and diminishing attention spans,should they invest precious time sinking into a good book
  The beginnings of an answer lie in the same technology that has posed the question. Psychologists from Washington University used brain scans to see what happens inside our heads when we read stories.They found that“readers mentally simulate each new situation encountered in a narrative”.The brain weaves these situations together with experiences from its own life to create a new mental synthesis.Reading a book leaves US with new neural pathways.
  The discovery that our brains are physically changed by the experience of reading is something many of US will understand instinctively,as we think back to the way an extraordinary book had a transformative effect on the way we viewed the world.Thistransformation only takes place when we lose ourselves in a book,abandoning the emotional and mental chatter of the real world.That’S why studies have found this kind of deep readingmakes US more empathetic,or as Nicholas Cart puts it in his essay,The Dreams of Readers,“more alert to the inner ljves nf others”.
  This is significant because recent scientific research has also found a dramatic fall in empathy among teenagers in advanced western cultures.We can’t yet be sure why this is happening,but the best hypothesis is that it is the result of their immersion in the internet. So technology reveals that our brains are being changed by technology,and then offers a potential solution--the book.
  Rationally,we know that reading is the foundation stone of all education,and therefore an essential underpinning of the knowledge economy.So reading is——0r should be——an aspect of public policy.But perhaps even more significant is its emotional role as the.starting point for inpidual voyages of personal development and pleasure.Books can open up emotional and imaginative landscapes that extend the corridors of the web.They can help create and reinforce our sense of self.
  If reading were to decline significantly,it would change the very nature of our species.If we,in the future,are no longer wired for solitary reflection and creative thought,we will be diminished.But as a reader and a publisher,I am optimistic.Technology throws up as many solutions as it does challengesfor every door it closes,another opens.So the ability,offered by devices like e-readers,smartphones and tablets,to carry an entire library in your hand is an amazing opportunity.As publishers,we need to use every new piece of technology to embed long—form reading within our culture.We should concentrate on the message.Not agonize over the medium.
According to the psychologists from Washington University,reading a bookwill_______ .

A.create new mental experience that is totally different from real—life experience
B.make readers simulate what they have read in real life
C.bring tangible changes to the readers’brain
D.enhance the thinking capability of readers

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Europe is not a gender-equality heaven.In particular, the corporate workplace will never be completely family—friendly until women are part of senior management decisions,and Europe,s top corporate-governance positions remain overwhelmingly male .indeed,women hold only 14 percent of positions on Europe corporate boards.
The Europe Union is now considering legislation to compel corporate boards to maintain a certain proportion of women-up to 60 percent.This proposed mandate was born of frustration. Last year, Europe Commission Vice President Viviane Reding issued a call to voluntary action. Reding invited corporations to sign up for gender balance goal of 40 percent female board membership. But her appeal was considered a failure: only 24 companies took it up.
Do we need quotas to ensure that women can continue to climb the corporate Ladder fairy as they balance work and family
“Personally, I don’t like quotas,” Reding said recently. “But i like what the quotas do.” Quotas get action: they “open the way to equality and they break through the glass ceiling,” according to Reding, a result seen in France and other countries with legally binding provisions on placing women in top business positions.
I understand Reding’s reluctance-and her frustration. I don’t like quotas either; they run counter to my belief in meritocracy, government by the capable. Bur, when one considers the obstacles to achieving the meritocratic ideal, it does look as if a fairer world must be temporarily ordered.
After all, four decades of evidence has now shown that corporations in Europe as the US are evading the meritocratic hiring and promotion of women to top position— no matter how much “soft pressure ” is put upon them. When women do break through to the summit of corporate power--as, for example, Sheryl Sandberg recently did at Facebook—they attract massive attention precisely because they remain the exception to the rule.
If appropriate pubic policies were in place to help all women---whether CEOs or their children’s caregivers--and all families, Sandberg would be no more newsworthy than any other highly capable person living in a more just society.
In the European corporate workplace, generally_____.

A.women take the lead
B.men have the final say
C.corporate governance is overwhelmed
D.senior management is family-friendly

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Beyond the Blink
When the Supreme Court announced its decision on the Affordable Care Act last month, the media went wild. The rush to judgment took seconds. CNN and Fox News initially described the decision incorrectly, saying five justices had struck down the law. Even after corrections, the snap analysis that followed wasn’t very helpful. The multipart decision is complex, and its ramifications will take months or even years to understand.
The blink response to this case is only the latest example of a troubling increase in the speed of our reactions. E-mail, social media and the 24-hour news cycle are informational amphetamines, a cocktail of pills that we pop at an increasingly fast pace — and that lead us to make mistaken split-second decisions. Economists label the problem “present bias”: we are vulnerable to fast, salient stimulation.
Fortunately, there is an antidote: the conscious pause. Scientists have found that although we are prone to snap overreactions, if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react, we can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quick, hard-wired responses.
For example, countless studies have shown that physicians’ immediate, unconscious reactions to racial minorities lead them to undertreat black patients. In one study published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine in 2007, researchers asked several hundred doctors about a hypothetical 50-year-old male patient who showed up with chest pain. The researchers gave the doctors a photograph of the man, randomly varying his race. Half saw him as white; half saw him as black.
Sure enough, although the doctors insisted they were not racially biased, they were more likely to prescribe thrombolysis, an anti-blood-clotting procedure, for the white patient, while giving the black patient a less-aggressive prescription. The doctors didn’t appear racist, yet their unconscious snap reactions led them to treat blacks differently — the very definition of racism.
However, about one in four of the doctors guessed that the study was designed to test racial bias. They stopped for a moment and considered how they might react differently depending on race. The researchers found that this “aware” subgroup did not treat patients differently. Once they paused to consider whether race was an issue, race was no longer an issue.
Snap decisions can be important defense mechanisms; if we are judging whether someone is dangerous, our brains and bodies are hard-wired to react very quickly, within milliseconds. But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociable, studies show, we need at least a minute, preferably five. It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality, like neuroticism or open-mindedness. If we need to understand how nine justices resolved a difficult legal issue, we need even more time.
But snap decisions in reaction to rapid, even subliminal stimuli aren’t exclusive to the interpersonal realm. Sanford DeVoe and Chen-Bo Zhong, psychologists at the University of Toronto, found that viewing a fast-food logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent faster, even though reading has little to do with eating. We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else we’re doing. Subjects exposed to fast-food flashes also tend to think a musical piece lasts too long.
Yet we can reverse such influences. If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face (one reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling), we can take a moment before buying. If we know female job screeners are more likely to reject attractive female applicants, as a study by the economists Bradley Ruffle and Ze’ev Shtudiner shows, we can help screeners understand their biases — or hire outside screeners.
John Gottman, the marriage guru made famous in Malcolm Gladwell’s best-selling book “Blink,” explains that we quickly “thin slice” information reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in “thick sliced” long-term study. When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a much longer evaluation: two days, not two seconds.
Our ability to mute our hard-wired reactions by pausing is what differentiates us from animals: primates and dogs can think about the future only intermittently or for a few minutes. But historically we have spent about 12 percent of our days contemplating the longer term.
The beginning of summer is supposed to be the time for us to slow down and take a breath. Go to the beach with a few books. Spend downtime with family. Tune out. But instead of jumping into the swimming pool, we have leapt into a whirlpool of news.
Still, although technology might change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high-speed trend. There are a couple of summer months left, and no time to waste.
Frank Partnoy is a law professor at the University of San Diego and the author of “Wait: The Art and Science of Delay.”
The time needed in making decisions may____.

A.vary according to the urgency of the situation
B.prove the complexity of our brain reaction
C.depend on the importance of the assessment
D.predetermine the accuracy of our judgment

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Imagine a new immigration policy
A century ago, the immigrants from across the Atlantic included settlers and sojourners. Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the United States came those who had no intention to stay, and who would make some money and then go home. Between 1908 and 1915, about 7 million people arrived while about 2 million departed. About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an affectionate nickname, "uccelli di passaggio," birds of passage.
Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants. We pide newcomers into two categories: legal or illegal, good or bad. We hail them as Americans in the making, or brand them as aliens fit for deportation. That framework has contributed mightily to our broken immigration system and the long political paralysis over how to fix it.
We don't need more categories, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond strict definitions of legal and illegal. To start, we can recognize the new birds of passage, those living and thriving in the gray areas. We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges.
Crop pickers, violinists, construction workers, entrepreneurs, engineers, home health-care aides and particle physicists are among today's birds of passage. They are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas. They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them. They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another.
With or without permission, they straddle laws, jurisdictions and identities with ease. We need them to imagine the United States as a place where they can be productive for a while without committing themselves to staying forever. We need them to feel that home can be both here and there and that they can belong to two nations honorably.
Imagine life with a radically different immigration policy: The Jamaican woman who came as a visitor and was looking after your aunt until she died could try living in Canada for a while. You could eventually ask her to come back to care for your mother.
The Indian software developer could take some of his Silicon Valley earnings home to join friends in a little start-up, knowing that he could always work in California again. Or the Mexican laborer who busts his back on a Wisconsin dairy farm for wages that keep milk cheap would come and go as needed because he could decide which dairy to work for, and a bi-national bank program was helping him save money to build a better life for his kids in Mexico.
Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes on both sides of the immigration battle. Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes, including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system.
A new system that encourages both sojourners and settlers would not only help ensure that our society receives the human resources it will need in the future, it also could have an added benefit: Changing the rigid framework might help us resolve the status of the estimated 11 million unauthorized migrants who are our shared legacy of policy failures.
Currently, we do not do gray zones well. Hundreds of thousands of people slosh around in indeterminate status because they're caught in bureaucratic limbo or because they have been granted temporary stays that are repeatedly extended. President Barack Obama created a paler shade of gray this summer by exercising prosecutorial discretion not to deport some young people who were brought to this country illegally as children. But these are exceptions, not rules.
The basic mechanism for legal immigration today, apart from the special category of refugee, is the legal permanent resident visa, or green card. Most recipients are people sponsored by close relatives who live in the United States. As the name implies, this mechanism is designed for immigrants who are settling down. The visa can be revoked if the holder does not show "intent to remain" by not maintaining a U.S. address, going abroad to work full time or just traveling indefinitely. Legal residents are assumed to be on their way to becoming Americans, physically, culturally and legally. After five years of living here, they become eligible for citizenship and a chance to gain voting rights and full access to the social safety net.
This is a fine way to deal with people who arrive with deep connections to the country and who resolve to stay. That can and should be most immigrants. But this mechanism has two problems: The nation is not prepared to offer citizenship to every migrant who is offered a job. And not everyone who comes here wants to stay forever.
It may have once made sense to think of immigrants as sodbusters who were coming to settle empty spaces. But that antique reasoning does not apply when the country is looking at a long, steep race to remain competitive in the world economy, particularly not when innovation and entrepreneurship are supposed to be our comparative advantage. To succeed, we need modern birds of passage.
The challenges differ depending on whether you are looking at the high end of the skills spectrum, the information workers or at low-skilled laborers.
A frequent proposal for highly skilled workers comes with the slogan, "Staple a green card to the diploma." That is supposed to ensure that a greater share of brainy international students remain in the United States after earning degrees in science and technology. But what if they are not ready for a long-term commitment No one would suggest that investment capital or design processes need to reside permanently in one nation. Talent today yearns to be equally mobile. Rather than try to oblige smart young people from abroad to stay here, we should allow them to think of the United States as a place where they can always return, a place where they will spend part, not all, of their lives, one of several places where they can live and work and invest.
Temporary-worker programs are a conventional approach to meeting low-skilled labor needs without illegal immigration. That's what President George W. Bush proposed in 2004, saying the government should "match willing foreign workers with willing American employers." An immigrant comes to do a particular job for a limited period of time and then goes home. But such programs risk replacing one kind of rigidity with another. The relatively small programs currently in place don't manage the matchmaking very well.
Competing domestic workers need to be protected, as do the migrant workers, and the process must be nimble enough to meet labor market demand. Nobody really has pulled that off, and there is no reason to believe it can be done on a grand scale. Rather than trying to link specific migrants to specific jobs, different types of temporary work visas could be pegged to industries, to places or to time periods. You could get an engineering visa, not only a visa to work at Intel.
Both short-term visas and permanent residence need to be part of the mix, but they are not the whole answer. Another valuable tool is the provisional visa, which Australia uses as a kind of intermediary stage in which temporary immigrants spend several years before becoming eligible for permanent residency. The U.S. system practically obliges visitors to spend time here without authorization when they've married a citizen, gotten a job or done something else that qualifies them to stay legally.
We also could borrow from Europe and create long-term permission to reside for certain migrants that is contingent on simply being employed, not on having a specific job. And, legislation could loosen the definitions of permanent residency so that migrants could gain a lifetime right to live and work in the United States without having to be here (and pay taxes here) more or less continuously.
The idea that newcomers are either saints or sinners is not written indelibly either in our hearts or in our laws. As the size of the unauthorized population has grown over the past 20 years or so, the political response has dictated seeing immigration policy through the stark lens of law enforcement:
Whom do we lock up, kick out, fence off Prominent politicians of both parties, including both presidential candidates, have engaged in macho one-upmanship when it comes to immigration. So, President Obama broke records for deportations. Mitt Romney, meanwhile, vows to break records for border security.
Breaking out of the either/or mentality opens up many avenues for managing future immigration. It could also help break the stalemate over the current population of unauthorized migrants. No election result will produce a Congress that offers a path to citizenship for everybody, but there is no support for total deportation, either.
If we accept that there are spaces between legal and illegal, then options multiply.
Citizenship could be an eventual outcome for most, not all, people here illegally, but everyone would get some kind of papers, and we can engineer a way for people to work their way from one status to another. The newly arrived and least attached could be granted status for a limited time and receive help with returning to their home countries. Others might be offered life-long privileges to live and work here, but not citizenship. We'd give the fullest welcome to those with homes, children or long time jobs.
By insisting that immigrants are either Americans or aliens, we make it harder for some good folks to come and we oblige others to stay for the wrong reasons. Worse, we ensure that there will always be people living among us who are outside the law, and that is not good for them or us.
“Birds of passage” refers to those who____

A.immigrate across the Atlantic.
B.leave their home countries for good.
C.stay in a foregin temporaily.
D.find permanent jobs overseas.

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In an essay, entitled “Making It in America,” in the latest issue of The Atlantic, the author Adam Davidson relates a joke from cotton country about just how much a modern textile mill has been automated: The average mill has only two employees today, “a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog, and the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.”
Davidson’s article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and sagging middle-class incomes today is largely because of the big drop in demand because of the Great Recession, but it is also because of the quantum advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution, which are more rapidly than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign workers.
In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job, could earn an average lifestyle. But, today, average is officially over. Being average just won’t earn you what it used to. It can’t when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius. Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra — their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment. Average is over.
Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. As they say, if horses could have voted, there never would have been cars. But there’s been an acceleration. As Davidson notes, “In the 10 years ending in 2009, [U.S.] factories shed workers so fast that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs — about 6 million in total — disappeared.”
And you ain’t seen nothin’ yet. Last April, Annie Lowrey of Slate wrote about a start-up called “E la Carte” that is out to shrink the need for waiters and waitresses: The company “has produced a kind of souped-up iPad that lets you order and pay right at your table. The brainchild of a bunch of M.I.T. engineers, the nifty invention, known as the Presto, might be found at a restaurant near you soon. ... You select what you want to eat and add items to a cart. Depending on the restaurant’s preferences, the console could show you nutritional information, ingredients lists and photographs. You can make special requests, like ‘dressing on the side’ or ‘quintuple bacon.’ When you’re done, the order zings over to the kitchen, and the Presto tells you how long it will take for your items to come out. ... Bored with your companions Play games on the machine. When you’re through with your meal, you pay on the console, splitting the bill item by item if you wish and paying however you want. And you can have your receipt e-mailed to you. ... Each console goes for $100 per month. If a restaurant serves meals eight hours a day, seven days a week, it works out to 42 cents per hour per table — making the Presto cheaper than even the very cheapest waiter.”
What the iPad won’t do in an above average way a Chinese worker will. Consider this paragraph from Sunday’s terrific article in The Times by Charles Duhigg and Keith Bradsher about why Apple does so much of its manufacturing in China: “Apple had redesigned the iPhone’s screen at the last minute, forcing an assembly-line overhaul. New screens began arriving at the [Chinese] plant near midnight. A foreman immediately roused 8,000 workers inside the company’s dormitories, according to the executive. Each employee was given a biscuit and a cup of tea, guided to a workstation and within half an hour started a 12-hour shift fitting glass screens into beveled frames. Within 96 hours, the plant was producing over 10,000 iPhones a day. ‘The speed and flexibility is breathtaking,’ the executive said. ‘There’s no American plant that can match that.’ ”
And automation is not just coming to manufacturing, explains Curtis Carlson, the chief executive of SRI International, a Silicon Valley idea lab that invented the Apple iPhone program known as Siri, the digital personal assistant. “Siri is the beginning of a huge transformation in how we interact with banks, insurance companies, retail stores, health care providers, information retrieval services and product services.”
There will always be change — new jobs, new products, new services. But the one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the I.T. revolution, the best jobs will require workers to have more and better education to make themselves above average. Here are the latest unemployment rates from the Bureau of Labor Statistics for Americans over 25 years old: those with less than a high school degree, 13.8 percent; those with a high school degree and no college, 8.7 percent; those with some college or associate degree, 7.7 percent; and those with bachelor’s degree or higher, 4.1 percent.
In a world where average is officially over, there are many things we need to do to buttress employment, but nothing would be more important than passing some kind of G.I. Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has access to post-high school education.
The joke in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate_______

A.the impact of technological advances
B.the alleviation of job pressure
C.the shrinkage of textile mills
D.the decline of middle-class incomes

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Given the advantage of electronic money, you might think that we should move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically._1 , a true cashless society is probably not around the corner.Indeed, predictions have been 2_ for two decades but have not yet come to fruition.
For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment “would soon revolutionize the very 3. of money itself,” only to 4.itself several years later.Why has the movement to a cashless society been so 5. in coming
Although e-money might be more convenient and may be more efficient than a payments system based on paper, several factors work 6.t the disappearance of the paper system.First, it is very 7.to set up the computer, card reader, and telecommunications networks necessary to make electronic money the 8.form of payment Second, paper checks have the advantage that they 9 receipts, something thai many consumers are unwilling to 10 .Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of "float" - it takes several days 11 a check is cashed and funds are 12 from the issuer's account, which means that the writer of the check can cam interest on the funds in the meantime.13 electronic payments arc immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer.
Fourth,electronic means of payment 14. security and privacy concerns.We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information 15.there. Because this is not an 16. occurrence, unscrupulous persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and 17.funds by moving them from someone else’s accounts into their own.The 18. of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a whole new field of computer science has developed to 19. security issues.A further concern is that the use of electronic means of payment leaves an electronic 20.that contains a large amount of personal data on buying habits.
请在第_____处填上正确答案。

A.However
B.Moreover
C.Therefore
D.Otherwise

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It is speculated that gardens arise from a basic need in the inpiduals who made them: the need for creative expression. There is no doubt that gardens evidence an impossible urge to create, express, fashion, and beautify and that self-expression is a basic human urge; (46) Yet when one looks at the photographs of the garden created by the homeless, it strikes one that , for all their persity of styles, these gardens speak os various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression.
One of these urges had to do with creating a state of peace in the midst of turbulence, a “still point of the turning world,” to borrow a phrase from T. S. Eliot. (47)A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need. This distinction is so much so that where the latter is lacking, as it is for these unlikely gardens, the foemer becomes all the more urgent. Composure is a state of mind made possible by the structuring of one’s relation to one’s environment. (48) The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce from into an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such. In so doing they give composure to a segment of the inarticulate environment in which they take their stand.
Another urge or need that these gardens appear to respond to, or to arise from is so intrinsic that we are barely ever conscious of its abiding claims on us. When we are deprived of green, of plants, of trees, (49)most of us give into a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in garden and feel the expression vanish as if by magic. In most of the homeless gardens of New York City the actual cultivation of plants is unfeasible, yet even so the compositions often seem to represent attempts to call arrangement of materials, an institution of colors, small pool of water, and a frequent presence of petals or leaves as well as of stuffed animals. On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference, at some basic level, seems to be the natural world. (50)It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of word garden though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions. In them we can see biophilia- a yearning for contact with nonhuman life-assuming uncanny representational forms.
正确翻译为______

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The social sciences are flourishing.As of 2005,there were almost half a million professional social scientists from all fields in the world, working both inside and outside academia. According to the World Social Science Report 2010,the number of social-science students worldwide has swollen by about 11% every year since 2000.
Yet this enormous resource in not contributing enough to today’s global challenges including climate change, security,sustainable development and health.(41)______Humanity has the necessary agro-technological tools to eradicate hunger , from genetically engineered crops to arificial fertilizers . Here , too, the problems are social: the organization and distribution of food, wealth and prosperity.
(42)____This is a shame—the community should be grasping the opportunity to raise its influence in the real world. To paraphrase the great social scientist Joseph Schumpeter:there is no radical innovation without creative destruction .
Today ,the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly debates,rather than on topics with external impact.
Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords “environmental changed” or “climate change” have increased rapidly since 2004,(43)____
When social scientists do tackle practical issues ,their scope is often local:Belgium is interested mainly in the effects of poverty on Belgium for example .And whether the community’s work contributes much to an overall accumulation of knowledge is doubtful.
The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding (44)____this is an adequate amount so long as it is aimed in the right direction. Social scientists who complain about a lack of funding should not expect more in today’s economic climate.
The trick is to direct these funds better.The European Union Framework funding programs have long had a category specifically targeted at social scientists.This year,it was proposed that system be changed:Horizon 2020,a new program to be enacted in 2014,would not have such a category ,This has resulted in protests from social scientists.But the intention is not to neglect social science ; rather ,the complete opposite.(45)____That should createmore collaborative endeavors and help to develop projects aimed directly at solving global problems.
请在第____处填上正确选项。

[A] It could be that we are evolving two communities of social scientists:one that is discipline-oriented and publishing in highly specialized journals,and one that is problem-oriented and publishing elsewhere,such as policy briefs.

[B] However,the numbers are still small:in 2010,about 1,600 of the
100,000 social-sciences papers published globally included one of these
Keywords.

[C] the idea is to force social to integrate their work with other categories, including health and demographic change food security, marine research and the bio-economy, clear, efficient energy; and inclusive, innovative and secure societies.

[D] the solution is to change the mindset of the academic community, and what it considers to be its main goal. Global challenges and social innovation ought to receive much more attention from scientists, especially the young ones.

[E] These issues all have root causes in human behavior . all require behavioral change and social innovations , as well as technological development . Stemming climate change , for example , is as much about changing consumption patterns and promoting tax acceptance as it is about developing clean energy.

[F] Despite these factors , many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems . And in Europe , some are up in arms over a proposal to drop a specific funding category for social-science research and to integrate it within cross-cutting topics of sustainable development .

[G] During the late 1990s , national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a percentage of all research and development funds-including government, higher education, non-profit and corporate -varied from around 4% to 25%; in most European nations , it is about 15%.

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On a five to three vote, the Supreme Court knocked out much of Arizona’s immigration law Monday-a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration.But on the more important matter of the Constitution,the decision was an 8-0 defeat for the Administration’s effort to upset the balance of power between the federal government and the states.
In Arizona v.United States, the majority overturned three of the four contested provisions of Arizona’s controversial plan to have state and local police enforce federal immigration law.The Constitutional principles that Washington alone has the power to “establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization ”and that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial .Arizona had attempted to fashion state policies that ran parallel to the existing federal ones.
Justice Anthony Kennedy, joined by Chief Justice John Roberts and the Court’s liberals, ruled that the state flew too close to the federal sun.On the overturned provisions the majority held the congress had deliberately “occupied the field” and Arizona had thus intruded on the federal’s privileged powers.
However,the Justices said that Arizona police would be allowed to verify the legal status of people who come in contact with law enforcement.That’s because Congress has always envisioned joint federal-state immigration enforcement and explicitly encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues.
Two of the three objecting Justice-Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas-agreed with this Constitutional logic but disagreed about which Arizona rules conflicted with the federal statute.The only major objection came from Justice Antonin Scalia,who offered an even more robust defense of state privileges going back to the alien and Sedition Acts.
The 8-0 objection to President Obama turns on what Justice Samuel Alito describes in his objection as “a shocking assertion assertion of federal executive power”.The White House argued that Arizona’s laws conflicted with its enforcement priorities,even if state laws complied with federal statutes to the letter.In effect, the White House claimed that it could invalidate any otherwise legitimate state law that it disagrees with .
Some powers do belong exclusively to the federal government, and control of citizenship and the borders is among them.But if Congress wanted to prevent states from using their own resources to check immigration status, it could.It never did so.The administration was in essence asserting that because it didn’t want to carry out Congress’s immigration wishes, no state should be allowed to do so either. Every Justice rightly rejected this remarkable claim.
Three provisions of Arizona’s plan were overturned because they

A.deprived the federal police of Constitutional powers.
B.disturbed the power balance between different states.
C.overstepped the authority of federal immigration law.
D.contradicted both the federal and state policies.

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Up until a few decades ago, our visions of the future were largely - though by no means uniformly - glowingly positive.Science and technology would cure all the ills of humanity, leading to lives of fulfillment and opportunity for all.
Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we have gained a deeper appreciation of the range of threats facing us, from asteroid strike to epidemic flu and to climate change.You might even be tempted to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to.
But such gloominess is misplaced.The fossil record shows that many species have endured for millions of years - so why shouldn't we Take a broader look at our species' place in the universe, and it becomes clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years .Look up Homo sapiens in the "Red List" of threatened species of the International Union for the Conversation of Nature (IUCN) ,and you will read: "Listed as Least Concern as the species is very widely distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, and there are no major threats resulting in an overall population decline."
So what does our deep future hold A growing number of researchers and organisations are now thinking seriously about that question.For example, the Long Now Foundation has its flagship project a medical clock that is designed to still be marking time thousands of years hence .
Perhaps willfully , it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about themore immediate future.The potential evolution of today's technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it's perhaps best left to science fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage.That's one reason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future.
But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable assurance.As so often, the past holds the key to the future: we have now identified enough of the long-term patterns shaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidence-based forecasts about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves.
This long perspective makes the pessimistic view of our prospects seem more likely to be a passing fad.To be sure, the future is not all rosy.But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come.
Our vision of the future used to be inspired by

A.our desire for lives of fulfillment
B.our faith in science and technology
C.our awareness of potential risks
D.our belief in equal opportunity

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An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows which half .In the internet age, at least in theory ,this fraction can be much reduced .By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioural” ads at those most likely to buy.
In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads Or should they have explicit permission
In December 2010 America's Federal Trade Cornmission (FTC) proposed adding a "do not track "(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell adwertisers that they did not want to be followed .Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer DNT ;Google's Chrome is due to do so this year.In February the FTC and Digltal Adwertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responging to DNT requests.
On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer 10,the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default.
It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond.Geting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so.Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway.
Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone.Atter all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how.If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on default will become the norm.DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8-though the firm has compared some of its other products favourably with Google's on that count before.Brendon Lynch, Microsoft's chief privacy officer, bloggde:"we believe consumers should have more control." Could it really be that simple
It is suggested in paragraph 1 that “behavioural” ads help advertisers to:

A.ease competition among themselves
B.lower their operational costs
C.avoid complaints from consumers
D.provide better online services

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In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada, Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scold her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her.Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant’s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to department stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment.
This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn’t be more out of date or at odds with feverish world described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline’s three-year indictment of “fast fashion”.In the last decades or so, advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely.Quckier turnrounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent releases, and more profit.Those labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposal—— meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertise that——and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks.By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking all industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace.
The victims of this revolution, of course, are not limited to designers.For H&M to offer a 5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2300-plus stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage, overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amount of harmful chemicals.
Overdressed is the fashion world’s answer to consumer activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma.Mass-produced clothing, like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable, and wasteful,” Cline argues, Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year——about 64 items per person——and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste.
Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named SKB, who, since 2008 has make all of her own clothes——and beautifully.But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example, can’t be knocked off.
Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment——including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection Line——Cline believes lasting-change can only be effected by the customer.She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy.Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford to it.
Priestly criticizes her assistant for her

A.poor bargaining skill.
B.insensitivity to fashion.
C.obsession with high fashion.
D.lack of imagination.

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People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making inpidual decisions.At first glance this might seem like a strength that 1 the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by 2 factors.But Dr.Uri Simonsohn speculated that an inability to consider the big 3 was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samples of information they were working with.4 , he theorised that a judge 5 of appearing too soft 6 crime might be more likely to send someone to prison 7 he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to probation on that day.
To 8 this idea, he turned to the university-admissions process.In theory, the 9 of an applicant should not depend on the few others 10 randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr Simonsohn suspected the truth was 11 .
He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews, 12 by 31 admissions officers.The interviewers had 13 applicants on a scale of one to five.This scale 14 numerous factors into consideration.The scores were 15 used in conjunction with an applicant's score on the Graduate Management Admission Test, or GMAT, a standardised exam which is 16 out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her.
Dr Simonsohn found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one 17 that, then the score for the next applicant would 18 by an average of 0.075 points.This might sound small, but to 19 the effects of such a decrease a candidate would need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been 20 .
请在第____处填上正确答案。

A.grant
B.submits
C.transmits
D.delivers

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