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根据下面资料,回答题

Can Burglars Jam Your Wireless Security System

A.Any product that promises to protect your home deserves careful examination.So it isn’t surprising that you’ll find plenty of strong opinions about the potential vulnerabilities of popular home—security systems.B.The most likely type of burglary(人室盗窃)by far is the unsophisticated crime of opportunity,usuallyinvolving a broken window or some forced entry.According to the FBI.crimes like these accounted forroughly two.thirds of all household burglaries in the US in 2013.The wide majority of the rest were illegal.unforced entries that resulted from something like a window being left open.The odds of a criminal usingtechnical means to bypass a security system are so small that the FBI doesn’t even track those statistics.
C.One of the main theoretical home—security concerns is whether or not a given system is vulnerable to beingblocked from working altogether.With wired setups,the fear is that a burglar(人室盗贼)might be ableto shut your system down simply by cutting the right cable.With a wireless setup.you stick battery—powered sensors up around your home that keep an eye on windows。doors,motion,and more.If theydetect something wrong while the system is armed.they’ll transmit a wireless aleft signal to a base stationthat will then raisethe alarm.That approach will eliminate most cord—cutting concerns--but what abouttheir wireless equivalent,jammingwith the fight device tuned to the fight frequency,what’s to stop athief from jamming your setup and blocking that alert signal from ever reaching the base station
D.Jamming concerns are nothing new,and they’re not unique to security systems.Any device that’s built toreceive a wireless signal at a specific frequency can be overwhelmed by a stronger signal coming in on thesame frequency.For comparison,let’s say you wanted to“jam”a conversation between two people--allyou’d need to do is yell in the listener’s ear.
E)Security devices are required to list the frequencies they broadcast on—mat means that a potential thief canfind what they need to know with minimal Googling.They will.however.need to know what systemthey’re looking for.If you have a sign in your yard declaring what setup you use,that’d point them in theright direction,though at that point,we’re talking about a highly targeted,semi—sophisticated attack,andnot the sort of forced—entry attack that makes up the majority of burglaries.It’s easier to find and acquirejamming equipment for some frequencies than it is for others.
F)Wireless security providers will often take steps to help combat the threat of jamming attacks.SimpliSafe,winner of our Editors’Choice distinction.utilizes a special system that’s capable of separating incidental RFinterference from targeted jamming attacks.When the system thinks it’s being jammed,it’ll notify you viapush alert(推送警报).From there,it’s up to you to sound the alarm manually.
G)SimpliSafe was singled out in one recent article on jamming,complete with a video showing the entiresystem being effectively bypassed with handheld jamming equipment.After taking appropriate measures tocontain the RF interference to our test lab,we tested the attack out for ourselves,and were able to verify that it’s possible with the right equipment.However.we also verified that SimpliSafe’s anti-jammingsystem works.It caught us in the act,sent an alert to my smartphone,and also listed our RF interferenceon the system’s event log.The team behind the article and video in question make no mention of thesystem,or whether or not it detected them.
H)We like the unique nature of that software.It means that a thief likely wouldn’t be able to Google how thesystem works.then figure out a way around it.Even if they could,SimpliSafe claims that its system isalways evolving,and that it varies slightly from system to system,which means there wouldn’t be auniversal magic formula for cracking it.Other systems also seem confident on the subject of jamming.Theteam at Frontpoint addresses the issue in a blog on its site,citing their own jam protection software andclaiming that there aren’t any documented cases of a successful jam attack since the company began offeringwireless security sensors in the 1980s.
I)Jamming attacks are absolutely possible.As said before.with the fight equipment and the right know—how,it’s possible to jam any wireless transmission.But how probable is it that someone will successfully jam their way into your home and steal your stuff
J)Let’s imagine that you live in a small home with a wireless security setup that offers a functional anti—jamming system.First,a thief is going to need to target your home,specifically.Then,he’s going to needto know the technical details of your system and acquire the specific equipment necessary for jamming yourspecific setup.Presumably,you keep your doors locked at night and while you’re away,so the thief willstill need to break in.That means defeating the lock somehow,or breaking a window.He’ll need to bejamming you at this point,as a broken window or opened door would normally release the alarm.So,too,would the motion detectors in your home,so the thief will need to continue jamming once he’s inside andsearching for things to steal.However,he’ll need to do so without tripping the anti-jamming system,thedetails of which he almost certainly does not have access to.
K)At the end of the day,these kinds of systems are primarily designed to protect against the sort ofopportunistic smash—and—grab attack that makes up the majority of burglaries.They’re also only a singlelayer in what should ideally be a many—sided approach to securing your home,one that includes commonsense things like sound locks and proper exterior lighting at night.No system is impenetrable,and none canpromise to eliminate the worst case completely.Every one of them has vulnerabilities that a knowledgeablethief could theoretically exploit.A good system is one that keeps that worst—case setting as improbable aspossible while also offering strong protection in the event of a less-extraordinary attack.
It is possible for burglars to make jamming attacks with the necessary equipment and skill.

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The Secret to Raising Smart Kids
A)I first began to investigate the basis of human motivation--and how people persevere aftersetbacks--as a psychology graduate student at Yale University in the 1960s. Animal experiments bypsychologists at the University of Pennsylvania had shown that after repeated failures, most animalsconclude that a situation is hopeless and beyond their control. After such an experience an animaloften remains passive even when it can effect change--a state they called learned helplessness.
B)People can learn to be helpless, too. Why do some students give up when they encounter difficulty,whereas others who are no more skilled continue to strive and learn One answer, I soondiscovered, lay in people's beliefs about why they had failed.
C)In particular, attributing poor performance to a lack of ability depresses motivation more than doesthe belief that lack of effort is to blame. When I told a group of school children who displayedhelpless behavior that a lack of effort led to their mistakes in math, they learned to keep tryingwhen the problems got tough. Another group of helpless children who were simply rewarded fortheir success on easier problems did not improve their ability to solve hard math problems. Theseexperiments indicated that a focus on effort can help resolve helplessness and generate success.
D)Later, I developed a broader theory of what separates the two general classes of learners--helplessversus mastery-oriented. I realized these different types of students not only explain their failuresdifferently, but they also hold different "theories" of intelligence.The helpless ones believeintelligence is a fixed characteristic: you have only a certain amount, and that's that. I call this a"fixed mind-set (思维模式). " Mistakes crack their self-confidence because they attribute errors toa lack of ability, which they feel powerless to change. They avoid challenges because challengesmake mistakes more likely. The mastery-oriented children, on the other hand, think intelligence isnot fixed and can be developed through education and hard work. Such children believe challengesare energizing rather than intimidating (令人生畏); they offer opportunities to learn. Studentswith such a growth mind-set were destined (注定) for greater academic success and were quitelikely to outperform their counterparts.
E) We validated these expectations in a study in which two other psychologists and I monitored 373students for two years during the transition to junior high school, when the work gets more difficultand the grading more strict, to determine how their mind-sets might affect their math grades. At thebeginning of seventh grade, we assessed the students' mind-sets by asking them to agree or disagreewith statements such as "Your intelligence is something very basic about you that you can't reallychange. " We then assessed their beliefs about other aspects of learning and looked to see whathappened to their grades.
F) As predicted, the students with a growth mind-set felt that learning was a more important goal thangetting good grades. In addition, they held hard work in high regard. They understood that evengeniuses have to work hard. Confronted by a setback such as a disappointing test grade, studentswith a growth mind-set said they would study harder or try a different strategy. The students whoheld a fixed mind-set, however, were concerned about looking smart with less regard for learning.They had negative views of effort, believing that having to work hard was a sign of low ability.They thought that a person with talent or intelligence did not need to work hard to do well.Attributing a bad grade to their own lack of ability, those with a fixed mind-set said that they wouldstudy less in the future, try never to take that subject again and consider cheating on future tests.
G) Such different outlooks had a dramatic impact on performance. At the start of junior high, the mathachievement test scores of the students with a growth mind-set were comparable to those ofstudents who displayed a fixed mind-set. But as the work became more difficult, the students witha growth mind-set showed greater persistence. As a result, their math grades overtook those of theother students by the end of the first semester--and the gap between the two groups continued towiden during the two years we followed them.
H) A fixed mind-set can also hinder communication and progress in the workplace and discourage orignore constructive criticism and advice. Research shows that managers who have a fixed mind-setare less likely to seek or welcome feedback from their employees than are managers with a growthmind-set.
I) How do we transmit a growth mind-set to our children One way is by telling stories aboutachievements that result from hard work. For instance, talking about mathematical geniuses whowere more or less born that way puts students in a fixed mind-set, but descriptions of greatmathematicians who fell in love with math and developed amazing skills produce a growth mind-set.
J) In addition, parents and teachers can help children by providing explicit instruction regarding themind as a learning machine. I designed an eight-session workshop for 91 students whose mathgrades were declining in their first year of junior high.Forty-eight of the students receivedinstruction in study skills only, whereas the others attended a combination of study skills sessionsand classes in which they learned about the growth mind-set and how to apply it to schoolwork. Inthe growth mind-set classes, students read and discussed an article entitled "You Can Grow YourBrain. " They were taught that the brain is like a muscle that gets stronger with use and thatlearning prompts the brain to grow new connections. From such instruction, many students beganto see themselves as agents of their own brain development. Despite being unaware that there weretwo types of instruction, teachers reported significant motivational changes in 27% of the childrenin the growth mind-set workshop as compared with only 9% of students in the control group.
K) Research is converging (汇聚) on the conclusion that great accomplishment and even genius istypically the result of years of passion and dedication and not something that flows naturally from agift.
The author's experiment shows that students with a fixed mind-set believe having to work hard is an indication of low ability.

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When Work Becomes a Game
A)What motivates employees to do their jobs well Competition with coworkers, for some. Thepromise of rewards, for others. Pure enjoyment of problem-solving, for a lucky few.
B)Increasingly, companies are tapping into these desires directly through what has come to be knownas "gamification" : essentially, turning work into a game. "Gamification is about understandingwhat it is that makes games engaging and what game designers do to create a great experience ingames, and taking those learnings and applying them to other contexts such as the workplace andeducation," explains Kevin Werbach, a gamification expert who teaches at the Wharton School ofBusiness at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States.
C)It might mean monitoring employee productivity on a digital leaderboard and offering prizes to thewinner, or giving employees digital badges or stars for completing certain activities. It could alsomean training employees how to do their jobs through video game platforms. Companies fromGoogle to L'Oréalto IBM to Wells Fargo are known to use some degree of gamification in theirworkplaces. And more and more companies are joining them. A recent report suggests that theglobal gamification market will grow from $1.65 billion in 2015 to $11.1 billion by 2020.
D)The concept of gamification is not entirely new, Werbach says. Companies, marketers and teachershave long looked for fun ways to engage people's reward-seeking or competitive spirits. Cracker Jackshas been "gamifying" its snack food by putting a small prize inside for more than 100 years, headds, and the turn-of-the-century steel magnate (巨头) Charles Schwab is said to have often comeinto his factory and written the number of tons of steel produced on the past shift on the factoryfloor, thus motivating the next shift of workers to beat the previous one.
E) But the word "gamification" and the widespread, conscious application of the concept only beganin earnest about five years ago, Werbach says. Thanks in part to video games, the generation nowentering the workforce is especially open to the idea of having their work gamified. "We are at apoint where in much of the developed world the vast majority of young people grew up playingvideo games, and an increasingly high percentage of adults play these video games too," Werbachsays.
F) A number of companies have sprung up--GamEffective, Bunchbail and Badgeville, to name a few--in recent years offering gamification platforms for businesses. The platforms that are most effectiveturn employees' ordinary job tasks into part of a rich adventure narrative. "What makes a gamegame-like is that the player actually cares about the outcome," Werbach says. "The principle isabout understanding what is motivating to this group of players, which requires some understandingof psychology. "
G) Some people, Werbach says, are motivated by competition.Sales people often fall into thiscategory. For them, the right kind of gamification might be turning their saies pitches into acompetition with other team members, complete with a digital leaderboard showing who is winningat all times. Others are more motivated by collaboration and social experiences. One companyWerbach has studied uses gamification to create a sense of community and boost employees' morale(士气). When employees log in to their computers, they're shown a picture of one of theircoworkers and asked to guess that person's name.
H) Gamification does not have to be digital. Monica Cornetti runs a company that gamifies employeetrainings. Sometimes this involves technology, but often it does not. She recently designed agamification strategy for a saies training company with a storm-chasing theme. Employees formed"storm chaser teams" and competed in storm-themed educational exercises to earn variousrewards. "Rewards do not have to be stuff," Cornetti says. "Rewards can be flexible workinghours. " Another training, this one for pay roll law, used a Snow White and the Seven Dwarfstheme. "Snow White" is available for everyone to use, but the "dwarfs" are still under copyright,so Cornetti invented sound-alike characters (Grumpy Gus, Dopey Dan) to illustrate specific pay rolllaw principles.
I) Some people do not take naturaily to gamified work environments, Cornetti says.In herexperience, people in positions of power or people in finance or engineering do not tend to like thesound of the word. "If we are designing for engineers, I'm not talking about a ' game' at all,"Cornetti says. "I'm talking about a ' simulation' (模拟), I'm talking about ' being able to solvethis problem. '"
J) Gamification is " not a magic bullet," Werbach warns.A gamification strategy that is notsufficiently thought through or well tailored to its players may engage people for a little while, but itwill not motivate people in the long term. It can also be exploitative, especially when used withvulnerable populations. For workers, especially low-paid workers, who desperately need their jobsyet know they can be easily replaced, gamification may feel more like the Hunger Games. Werbachgives the example of severalDisneyland hotels in Anaheim, Caiifornia, which used large digital leaderboards to display how efficiently laundry workers were working compared to one another.Some employees found the board motivating. To others, it was the opposite of fun. Some began tostop taking bathroom breaks, worried that if their productivity fell they would be fired. Pregnantemployees struggled to keep up. In a Los Angeles Times article, one employee referred to the boardas a "digital whip. " "It actually had a very negative effect on morale and performance," Werbachsays.
K) Still, gamification only stands to become more popular, he says, "as more and more people comeinto the workforce who are familiar with the structures and expressions of digitai games. " "We arefar from reaching the peak," Cornetti agrees. "There is no reason this will go away. "
Some famous companies are already using gamification and more are trying to do the same.

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根据材料,回答问题。
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Baroness Thatcher is at the centre of a new row at Oxford University after plans to name a building after Britain's first female Prime Minister were (26) __________.
Some (27) __________are hoping to snub one of the university's most illustrious alumnae again--more than25 years after protests there (28)__________her being denied an honorary degree. Thatcher became the fast Oxford educated Prime Minister since the Second World War to be refused an (29)__________degree from the University in 1985 following student (30) __________ amidst cuts to education.
And now, a new revolt could halt plans to name a new facility after her. Oxford (31)__________and Syrian born billionaire Wafic Said is said to have donated ~15 million towards a new (32)__________at Oxford's Said Business School, due to open in the autumn, and has indicated that he wants to name it after the women he describes as "lioness".
But the news is not being welcomed by everyone.
Speaking to the Daily Telegraph, Bernard Sufrin, a fellow at Worcester College, said signatories would be "(33) __________"to force a vote against the "inconceivable" plans.
He said "I hope that those responsible for naming the building will take advice from those--now retired-- leading members of the University who oversaw the (34)__________failure of an honorary degree for Mrs.
Thatcher being proposed only to be rejected by (35)__________the Congregation."
26.__________

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根据材料,回答问题。
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.
You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
Addicted, Really
Mental-health specialists disagree over whether to classify compulsive online behaviour as addiction---and how to treat it. Craig Smallwood, a disabled American war veteran, spent more than 20,000 hours over five years playing an online role-playing game called "Lineage II". When NCsoft, the South Korean firm behind the game, accused him of breaking the game's rules and banned him, he was plunged into depression, severe paranoia (偏执) and hallucinations (幻想). He spent three weeks in hospital. After that, he sued NCsoft for fraud and negligence (过失 ), demanding over $ 9m in damages and claiming that the company acted negligently by failing to warn him of the danger that he would become "addicted" to the game.
But does it make sense to talk of addiction to online activity Mental-health specialists say three online behaviors can become problematic for many people: video games, pornography ( 色情作品 ) and messaging via e-mail and social networks. But there is far less agreement about whether any of this should be called "Internet addiction"--or how to treat it.
Some mental-health specialists wanted "Internet addiction" to be included in the fifth version of psychiatry's bible, the"Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", known as DSM-V, which is currently being overhauled (全面修订). The American Medical Association endorsed (赞成) the idea in 2007, only to backtrack( 放弃) days later. The American Journal of Psychiatry called Internet addiction a "common disorder" and supported its recognition. Last year the DSM-V drafting group made its decision: lnteruet addiction would not be included as a "behavioral addiction"--only gambling made the cut--but it said further study was necessary.
Skeptics say there is nothing uniquely addictive about the Internet. Back in 2000, Joseph Walther, a communications professor at Michigan State University, co-wrote an article in which he suggested, tongue in cheek, that the criteria used to call someone an Internet addict might also show that most professors were "addicted" to academia (学术活动). He argued that other factors, such as depression, are the real problem.
He stands by that view today. "No scientific evidence has emerged to suggest that lnternet use is a cause rather than a consequence of some other sort of issue," he says. "Focusing on and treating people for Internet addiction, rather than looking for underlying clinical issues, is definitely unwise."
Others disagree. "That would be wrong," says Kimberly Young, a researcher and therapist who has worked on Interact addiction since 1994. She insists that the Internet, with its powerfully immersive environments, creates new problems that people must learn to navigate(应对). Otherwise, the changing lifestyle will affect the development of the society.
No one disputes that online habits can turn toxic. Take South Korea, where widespread broadband means that the average high-school student plays video games for 23 hours each week. In 2007 the government estimated that around 210,000 children needed treatment for Internet addiction. In 2010 newspapers around the globe carried the story of a South Korean couple who fed their infant daughter so little that she starved to death. Instead of caring for the child, the couple spent most nights at an Internet cafe, sinking hours into a role- playing game in which they raised, fed and cared for a virtual daughter. And several South Korean men have died from exhaustion after marathon, multi-day gaming sessions.
The South Korean government has since asked game developers to adopt a gaming curfew (宵禁) for children, to prevent them playing between midnight and 8 a.m. At the same time, it has also opened more than 100 clinics for Internet addiction and sponsored an "Internet rescue camp" for serious cases.
But compulsive behaviour is not limited to garners. E-mail or web-use behaviours can also show signs of addiction. Getting through a business lunch in which no one pulls out a phone to check their messages now counts as a minor miracle in many quarters. A deluge (泛滥) of self-help books, most recently "Alone Together" by Sherry Turlde, a social scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, offer advice on how to unplug (去除障碍).
Pornography is hardly new, either, but the Internet makes accessing it much easier than ever before. When something can be summoned in an instant via broadband, whether it is a game world, an e-mail inbox or pornographic material, it is harder to resist. New services lead to new complaints. When online auction sites first became popular, talk of "eBay addiction" soon followed. Dr. Young says women complain to her now about addiction to Facebook--or even to "FarmVille", a game playable only within Facebook.
Treatment centres have popped up around the world with the popularity of online games. In 2006 Amsterdam's Smith & Jones facility billed itself as "the first and, currently, the only residential video-game treatment program in the world". In America the reSTART Internet Addiction Recovery Program claims to treat Internet addiction, gaming addiction, and even "texting addiction". In China, meanwhile, military-style "boot camps" are the preferred way to treat Internet problems.
Yet many people like feeling permanently connected. As Arikia Millikan, an American blogger, once put it, "If I could be jacked in at every waking hour of the day, I would, and I think a lot of my peers would do the, same." Bob LaRose, an Internet specialist at Michigan State University, doesn't believe her. In his research on college students, he found that most sense when they are "going overboard and restore self-control". Less than1% have a pathological(病态的) problem, he adds. For most people, Internet use "is just a habit--and one that brings us pleasure."
According to Joseph Walther, it is unwise to emphasize the treatment of Internet addiction instead of seeking for potential clinical issues.

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根据材料,回答问题。
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
Worried about what people are saying about you Concerns about gossip could influence behavior, including generosity, researchers said.
"As it turns out, the act of gossip can indeed be quite powerful," said Jared Piazza of Queen's University in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
Piazza and Jesse M. Beringa studied the36of 72 college students who were asked to distribute tokens (代金券) with a monetary value between themselves and someone else.
Half of the group were37told their decision would be discussed with a third party.
"Participants who were told that the receiver would be communicating their economic decision with the third party were 38 more generous in their allocations of the tokens than participants who were not 39 to believe that their decisions would be discussed," Piazza and Beringa said in the study published in the journal Human Behavior.
They added that the most40strategy from an economic standpoint would have been for a student to 41all 10 tokens to him or herself, but the threat of gossip seemed to have 42 their decision.
Although gender did not play a major role in the study, men were slightly more43than women.
"Allocations of males were, on average, slightly greater than allocations of females, although there were almost twice as many female participants," the researchers44.
A previous study showed that gossip is more powerful than truth, suggesting people believe what they hear through the grapevine even if they have evidence to the45.
A.added
B.beneficial
C.swayed
D.fabricated
E .reactions
F. made
G. still
H. significantly
I.allocate
J.thought
K.contrary
L. also
M .generous
N. led
O. economical
36.__________

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根据材料,回答问题。
You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
A University Degree No Longer Confers Financial Security
A.Millions of school-leavers in the rich world are about to bid a tearful goodbye to their parents and start a new life at university. Some are inspired by a pure love of learning. But most also believe that spending three or four years at university--and accumulating huge debts in the process--will boost their chances of landing a well-paid and secure job.
B.Their elders have always told them that education is the best way to equip themselves to thrive in a globalised world. Blue-collar workers will see their jobs outsourced and automated, the familiar argument goes. School dropouts will have to cope with a life of cash-strapped (资金紧张的) insecurity. But the graduate elite will have the world at its feet. There is some evidence to support this view. A recent study from Georgetown University's Centre on Education and the Workforce argues that"obtaining a post-secondary credential ( 证书) is almost always worth it." Educational qualifications are tightly correlated with earnings: an American with a professional degree can expect to pocket $3.6m over a lifetime; one with merely a high- school diploma can expect only $1.3m. The gap between more- and less-educated earners may be widening. A study in 2002 found that someone with a bachelor's degree could expect to earn 75% more over a lifetime than someone with only a high-school diploma. Today the disparity is even greater.
C.But is the past a reliable guide to the future Or are we at the beginning of a new phase in the relationship between jobs and education There are good reasons for thinking that old patterns are about to change--and that the current recession-driven downturn (衰退) in the demand for Western graduates will morph (改变) into something structural. The strong wind of creative destruction that has shaken so many blue-collar workers over the past few decades is beginning to shake the cognitive elite as well.
D.The supply of university graduates is increasing rapidly. The Chronicle of Higher Education calculates that between 1990 and 2007 the number of students going to university increased by 22% in North America, 74% in Europe, 144% in Latin America and 203% in Asia. In 2007 150m people attended university around the world, including 70m in Asia. Emerging economies—specially China--are pouring resources into building universities that can compete with the elite of America and Europe. They are also producing professional- services firms snch as Tata Consulting Services and Infosys that take fresh graduates and turn them into world-class computer programmers and consultants. The best and the brightest of the rich world must increasingly compete with the best and the brightest from poorer countries who are willing to work harder for less money.
E. At the same time, the demand for educated labor is being reconfigured (重新配置) by technology, in much the same way that the demand for agricultural labor was reconfigured in the 19th century and that for factory labor in the 20th. Computers can not only perform repetitive mental tasks much faster than human beings. They can also empower amateurs to do what professionals once did: why hire a flesh-and-blood accountant to complete your tax return when Turbotax (a software package ) will do the job at a fraction of the cost And the variety of jobs that computers can do is multiplying as programmers teach them to deal with tone and linguistic ambiguity.
F.Several economists, including Paul Krugman, have begun to argue that post-industrial societies will be characterized not by a relentless rise in demand for the educated but by a great "hollowing out", as mid-level jobs are destroyed by smart machines and high-level job growth slows. David Autor, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), points out that the main effect of automation in the computer era is not that it destroys blue-collar jobs but that it destroys any job that can be reduced to a routine. Alan Blinder of Princeton University, argues that the jobs graduates have traditionally performed are if anything more "offshorable" than low-wage ones. A plumber or lorry-driver's job cannot be outsourced to India. A computer programmer's can.
G. A university education is still a prerequisite for entering some of the great industries, such as medicine, law and academia (学术界), that provide secure and well-paying jobs. Over the 20th century these industries did a wonderful job of raising barriers to entry--sometimes for good reasons (nobody wants to be operated on by a barber) and sometimes for self-interested ones. But these industries are beginning to bend the roles. Newspapers are fighting a losing battle with the blogosphere. Universities are replacing tenure-track professors with non-tenured staff. Law firms are contracting out routine work such as"discovery" (digging up documents relevant to a lawsuit) to computerized-search specialists such as Blackstone Discovery. Even doctors are threatened, as patients find advice online and treatment in Walmart's new health centers.
H.Thomas Malone of MIT argues that these changes--automation, globalizafion and deregulation--may be part of a bigger change: the application of the pision of labor to brain-work. Adam Smith's factory managers broke the production of pins into 18 components. In the same way, companies are increasingly breaking the production of brain-work into ever tinier slices. TopCoder chops up IT projects into bite-sized chunks and then serves them up to a worldwide workforce of freelance coders.
I.These changes will undoubtedly improve the productivity of brain-workers. They will allow consumers to sidestep (规避 ) the professional industries that have extracted high rents for their services. And they will empower many brain-workers to focus on what they are best at and contract out more tedious tasks to others. But the reconfiguration of brain-work will also make life far less cozy and predictable for the next generation of graduates.
The creative destruction that has happened to blue-collar workers in the past also starts to affect the cognitive elite.

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Google Closes In on DoubleClick Deal
  Score one for Google. The Federal Trade Commission ruled Dec. 20 that it would not block Google's (GOOG) proposed $3.1 billion acquisition of leading online ad-serving and tracking firm DoubleClick. The 4-1 decision in Googie's favor marked a major win for the Web search Goliath, which is battling to expand its considerable share of the $30 billion online advertising market beyond tiny text ads related to Web queries.
  But Google can't claim victory yet. The European Union's antitrust commission still needs to sign off on the merger before Google can begin incorporating DoubleClick into its business. That may not happen without Google agreeing to certain conditions, if at all. Already, the EU has raised concerns about its impact on consumer privacy. "This is round one of a two-round battle," says Jeff Chester, executive director of the Center for Digital Democracy (CDD), a nonprofit public interest group that opposed the merger. "The EU can kill the deal, there is no question about it."
  The FTC said in its decision that it could only consider privacy concerns as they relate to marketplace competition. But it did issue a separate statement with some recommendations concerning online customer data collection and privacy.
  The Personal Business of Ad Placement
  Google has faced strong opposition to its online advertising ambitions since it announced plans to acquire DoubleClick in April (BusinessWeek.com, 4/14/07 ). Competitors for online ad dollars, such as   Microsoft (MSFT), argue the merger will enable Google to effectively control the market. Ads placed beside Web search results account for more than 40% of the dollars spent online, and Google controls more than two-thirds of that market, according to eMarketer. Much of the remaining online ad dollars go to display ads, the poster-like banners--DoubleClick's forte--that run on most Web sites.
  Online ads are priced based on how well they are matched to the target consumer. Google collects data on searches performed by inpidual computers, and DoubleClick records information about the computers that visit the Web pages in its network. The more data they collect, the better they can match a marketer's ad to a potentially interested customer, and the higher the premium they can charge on the ad.
  But consumer groups see the issue another way: the more data collected, the higher the risk of violating someone's privacy. For the past eight months, groups voiced concerns to the FTC that a combined Google/DoubleClick would aggregate too much information about what Web surfers do online, putting consumers at risk. In the end, the majority of the commissioners decided DoubleClick does not control enough of the display-ad market to give Google an unfair monopoly.
  "Competition among firms in this market is vigorous and will likely increase," the commission majority wrote in a statement.
  Increased Competition
  Recent announcements by Googie's chief competitors support this argument. On Dec. 19, Microsoft--one of the few to challenge Google's merger before the FTC--announced a $500 million, five-year advertising deal to place ads on Viaeom's (VIA) network of popular Websites, including MTV.com. Microsoft will also be able to sell ad space on Viacom pages that are not in a premium position, based on the data it has about visitors to Viacom's sites.
  Microsoft also recently solidified multiyear advertising agreements with Facebook, the second most popular social.network in the U.S., after News Corp.'s (NWS) MySpace, and well-trafficked social news site Digg (BusinessWeek.com, 9/19/07 ). "When Microsoft comes into a room and talks about anticompetitive behavior and threats to privacy, no one can take them seriously," says the CDD's Chester.
It also didn't help Google opponents that many of the company's competitors recently struck agreements to buy ad networks themselves, similar to Google's proposed deal with DoubleClick. Microsoft bought DoubleClick competitor a Quantive for $6 billion in May (BusinessWeek.com, 5/18/07 ). Yahoo! (YHOO) and Time Waruer's (TWX) AOL also
scooped up ad-serving and targeting firms earlier this year. Meanwhile, independent players, such as Specific Media, have secured millions in funding to consolidate their operations with other smaller ad networks (Business Week.com, 11/1/07 ).
  In a statement on Google's blog, Chief Legal Officer David Drummond applauded the ruling: "The FTC's decision publicly affirms what we and numerous independent analysts have been saying for months, our acquisition does not threaten competition in what is a robust, innovative, and quickly evolving online advertising space."
  Privacy Violation
  But will it threaten Web users The final answer may rest with the European Commission. In November the commission delayed a decision on the deal (BusinessWeek.com, 11/14/07 ), saying it was more complicated than many competition cases and demanded further review. The EC has until Apr. 2 to issue a ruling.
  Privacy advocates worry that Google, combining its wealth of search data with the information DoubleClick collects on who visits clients' sites, would violate consumer privacy. The sheer volume of information that DoubleClick collects would make it easy for Google to understand nearly everything about what millions of inpidual consumers do on the Web, critics say.
  G0ogle counters that DoubleClick clients own information about who visits their sites and what they do there. Many of those clients would consider it a violation of that agreement for Google to, say, sell car ads on its Gmail service to people who have recently visited an automotive site that uses DoubleClick. As a result, Google says, it can't simply fuse its data with DoubleClick's customer information. However, privacy groups argue that Google could easily encourage DoubleClick clients to relinquish their data in exchange for, say, free search ads.
  The FTC did offer a ray of hope for privacy advocates. The commissioners issued several recommendations about behavioral targeting, where information about users' Web activity is used to tailor online ads. The FTC said sites should clearly notify users when they're collecting data on their actions, and that sites should limit the length of time they store that data to reduce the risk of it falling into the wrong hands.
The FTC said it plans to look into whether "heightened protections" are needed to safeguard consumer privacy online.
注意此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答;题在答题卡1上。
Why Google can't claim victory
[A] Google doesn't agree to certain conditions.
[B] The European Union needs to sign off on the merge.
[C] Google has raised concerns about consumer privacy.
[D] Google can't begin incorporating DoubleClick into it's business.

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Children model themselves largely on their parents.
  They do so mainly through identification. Children identify 67 a parent when they believe they have the qualities and feelings that are 68 of that parent. The things parents do and say and the 69 they do and say to them therefore strongly influence a child's 70 . However, parents must consistently behave like the type of 71 they want their child to become.
  A parent's actions 72 affect the self-image that a child forms 73 identification. Children who see mainly positive qualities in their 74 will likely learn to see themselves in a positive way. Children who observe chiefly 75 qualities in their parents will have difficulty 76 positive qualities in themselves. Children may 77 their self-image, however, as they become increasingly 78 by peers groups' standards before they grow up.
  Isolated events, 79 dramatic ones, do not necessarily have a permanent 80 on a child's behavior. Children interpret such events according to their established attitudes and previous training. Children who know they are loved can, for 81 , accept the porce of their parents' or a parent's early 82 . But if children feel unloved, they may interpret such events __83 a sign of rejection or punishment.
In the same way, all children are not influenced 84 by toys and games, reading matter, and television programs. 85 in the case of a dramatic change in family relations, the effect of an activity or experience depends on how the child 86 it.阅读以上文章,回答题请在(67)处填上最佳答案。

A.to
B.with
C.around
D.for

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